Mo1715 Dysmenorrhea in Women With Crohn's Disease: A Case-Control Study

†Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (Impact Factor: 4.46). 04/2013; 19(7). DOI: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e318281f3a9
Source: PubMed


Dysmenorrhea and Crohn's disease (CD) have overlapping symptoms; however, their relationship is poorly understood. The aims of this study were to examine (1) the impact of dysmenorrhea on pain severity and pain medication use in CD and (2) the relationships between dysmenorrhea, CD activity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

This was a case-control study of menstruating women with and without CD. Subjects were assessed for dysmenorrhea, pain severity, medication use, menstrual distress, and HRQOL. CD activity scores were calculated. The correlation between menstrual distress and CD activity was assessed. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the effects of dysmenorrhea and CD on pain severity.

A total of 110 subjects were studied and 40% of cases had dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea was associated with higher pain scores among cases. Compared with controls, cases with dysmenorrhea reported similar pain severity but lower nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. After adjusting for medication use, cases had significantly greater distress due to menstrual pain. CD activity scores were not higher in women with dysmenorrhea; however, menstrual distress scores correlated positively with disease activity. HRQOL was significantly lower in cases with dysmenorrhea by some measures.

Dysmenorrhea is common in women with CD and has an additive effect on overall pain severity. It is not, however, associated with greater nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Menstrual distress is positively correlated with CD activity scores and associated with lower HRQOL by some measures. Treatment of dysmenorrhea may improve the pain experienced by women with CD, the perception of CD activity, and the quality of life in women with CD.

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    • "As previously mentioned, dysmenorrhea has been linked with excess PG during menses, and leakage of PG into the systemic circulation can cause worsening of GI symptoms. The result is further supported by a recent study which found that dysmenorrhea was highly prevalent in women with CD, occurring in about 40% of cases [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms are often experienced by healthy women during menstruation. An increased frequency of GI symptoms during menses has also been reported in women with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, IBD patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (IPAA) have not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between GI symptoms before and during menses in patients with IPAA, and to assess factors for exacerbation of GI symptoms in those patients. Methods: Adult women recorded in the Pouchitis Registry were invited to participate in a mailed survey. Participants reported on GI symptoms 1–5 days prior to- (pre-menses) and during the days of their menses in recent months. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained through the survey and chart review. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight (21.3%) out of 600 women with IPAA responded to the survey questionnaire. Forty-three (33.5%) were excluded for reasons including post-menopausal (n = 25), hysterectomy (n = 14) and use of contraceptives (n = 4). Abdominal pain (P = 0.001), diarrhea (P = 0.021), and urgency (P = 0.031) were more commonly reported during menses than pre-menses by the participants. Only a history of painful menses was significantly associated with increased GI symptoms during menses for patients with ileal pouch (odds ratio = 5.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.41–22.88; P = 0.015). Conclusion: GI symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and urgency are commonly associated with menses in patients with ileo-anal pouch. Painful menses may be associated with worsening of GI symptoms.
    07/2014; 2(3). DOI:10.1093/gastro/gou042
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) on menstrual function is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether changes in menstrual function occur in the year before IBD diagnosis or in the initial years after diagnosis. Women aged 18 years and older in the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry with at least 2 years of follow-up were eligible for this study. All patients were enrolled within 6 months of IBD diagnosis and followed prospectively. Menstrual cycle characteristics were retrospectively assessed. To assess for changes over time, general linear models for correlated data were used for continuous outcomes, and generalized estimating equations were used for discrete outcomes. One hundred twenty-one patients were studied. Twenty-five percent of patients experienced a change in cycle interval in the year before IBD diagnosis and 21% experienced a change in the duration of flow. Among women with dysmenorrhea, 40% experienced a change in the intensity of their menstrual pain and 31% experienced a change in its duration. Overall cycle regularity increased over time. Quality of life was significantly lower in women without regular cycles across all time points. Changes in menstrual function occur frequently in the year before IBD diagnosis; therefore, screening for menstrual irregularities should be considered in women with newly diagnosed IBD. Patients can be reassured that cycles typically become more regular over time.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2014; 20(3). DOI:10.1097/ · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gender-related physiological variations in gastrointestinal (GI) symptomatology have been observed in women of reproductive age. Many women experience cyclical changes in GI symptomatology during their menstrual cycle, particularly alteration in their bowel habits. Physiological studies of healthy women during the menstrual cycle showed a prolonged GI transit time during the luteal phase, either in the oro-cecum route or in the colon. Worsened GI symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating or diarrhea are observed in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) during menses. This may be due to elevated prostaglandin levels during menses, with an enhanced perception of viscera-somatic stimuli resulting in nausea, abdominal distension and pain. Also patients with IBS or IBD demonstrate a cyclical pattern more closely related to their bowel habits than healthy controls. Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also have exacerbated symptoms during menses; however, it is unclear whether this relates to physiological variation or disease exacerbation in IBS or IBD. Studies examining the association of the menstrual cycle and GI symptomatology in patients with IBS or IBD, have not yet clarified the underlying mechanisms. Moreover medications-such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral contraceptive pills used for dysmenorrhea and menstrual migraine in those patients have not well been controlled for in the previous studies, which can contribute to further bias. Understanding changes in GI symptomatology during the menstrual cycle may help to determine the true extent of disease exacerbation and proper management strategy. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.
    03/2015; 3(3). DOI:10.1093/gastro/gov010