Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Variables Are Compound- and Class-Specific Correlates of Urine Phytoestrogen Concentrations in the US Population
ABSTRACT Isoflavones and lignans are plant-derived dietary compounds generally believed to be beneficial to human health. We investigated the extent to which sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, and income) and lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and dietary supplement use) were correlates of spot urine concentration for daidzein, genistein, O-desmethylangolensin (DMA), equol, enterodiol, and enterolactone in the U.S. population aged ≥20 y (NHANES 2003-2006). We performed correlation analyses with continuous variables and calculated stratified unadjusted geometric means for each sociodemographic and lifestyle variable. We used bivariate significance testing and covariate adjustment by use of multiple regression models to identify influential variables and used β coefficients to estimate relative effects. Urine creatinine was also included in our analyses because of its use in correcting for variable dilution in spot urine samples. We observed many significant (P < 0.05) associations with the sociodemographic and lifestyle variables that withstood covariate adjustment. Smoking was a significant correlate of urine DMA and enterolactone, with concentrations at least 25% lower in smokers vs. nonsmokers. Consumers of 1 daily alcoholic drink vs. none were estimated to have 18-21% lower urine equol and DMA concentrations. A 25% increase in BMI was associated with a 21% lower urine enterolactone concentration, and increasing physical activity was associated with a >6% higher urine enterolactone concentration. Dietary supplement use was not significantly associated with any of the urine phytoestrogens. Overall, we found that relationships between sociodemographic and lifestyle variables and urine phytoestrogen concentration were highly compound and class specific.
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ABSTRACT: Fluctuating hormonal levels observed during the menopausal transition may increase vulnerability to depression in susceptible women. Thus, it is of interest to examine the effect of natural estrogens such as phytoestrogens on the risk of depression in perimenopausal women. Our analysis included 193 perimenopausal women of the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008 aged 45-55 years. Urinary concentrations of phytoestrogens (isoflavones and lignans) were measured by HPLC-APPI-MS/MS. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Logistic regression models examined the association of phytoestrogens concentrations (creatinine-standardized and log-transformed) with depression (yes/no). Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) of the associations between urinary phytoestrogen concentrations and perimenopausal depression were below 1; however, only lignans were significantly inversely associated with depression. The latter findings were not attenuated in multivariate analysis including age, race, body mass index, poverty income ratio, smoking, alcohol consumption, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (lignans: OR=0.66; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.50-0.87, enterodiol: OR=0.63; 95% CI 0.51-0.78, enterolactone: OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.60-0.93). Our cross-sectional study design does not allow for causal inferences. Because information to precisely assess perimenopausal symptoms was missing, we defined perimenopause based on women's age. Lower lignans but not isoflavones concentrations were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of depression in perimenopausal women. Because of medical risks associated with the use of hormone therapy, further investigation on the effect of lignans on the risk of depression in perimenopausal women is warranted.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2013; 156. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.029 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Some evidence suggests that phytoestrogens, such as soy-derived isoflavones, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and glycemic control. These data are mainly limited to postmenopausal women or individuals at elevated cardiometabolic risk. There is a lack of data for pregnant women who have elevated estrogen levels and physiologically altered glucose and lipid metabolism. We analyzed data from 299 pregnant women who participated in the NHANES 2001-2008 surveys. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between urinary concentrations of isoflavonoids and cardiometabolic risk markers, adjusted for body mass index, pregnancy trimester, total energy intake, dietary intake of protein, fiber, and cholesterol, and demographic and lifestyle factors. Cardiometabolic risk markers were log-transformed, and geometric means were calculated by quartiles of urinary concentrations of isoflavonoids. Comparing women in the highest vs. lowest quartiles of urine total isoflavone concentrations, we observed significant, inverse associations with circulating concentrations of fasting glucose (79 vs. 88 mg/dL, P-trend = 0.0009), insulin (8.2 vs. 12.8 μU/mL, P-trend = 0.03), and triglyceride (156 vs. 185 mg/dL, P-trend = 0.02), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (1.6 vs. 2.8, P-trend = 0.01), but not for total, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The concentrations of individual isoflavonoids, daidzein, equol, and O-desmethylangolensin were inversely associated with some cardiometabolic risk markers, although no clear pattern emerged. These data suggest that there may be a relation between isoflavone intake and cardiometabolic risk markers in pregnant women.Journal of Nutrition 12/2013; 144(3). DOI:10.3945/jn.113.184069 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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