The relationship between adverse childhood experiences and mental health in adulthood. A systematic literature review

Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie 04/2013; 55(4):259-68.
Source: PubMed


Traumatic childhood experiences are important societal problems and have far-reaching mental and somatic consequences. There is a considerable amount of literature concerning the relationship between adverse childhood experiences ( ace s) and anxiety, depression and substance abuse in adulthood.
To integrate systematically all available research data on this relationship.
We studied the literature via PubMed and Psyc info using the search terms ‘ ace s’, ‘anxiety’, ‘depression’, ‘substance abuse’, and ‘impact’.
65 publications were included in our study. Child abuse, substance abuse and parents’ divorce were found to be very frequent risk factors. On average, the occurrence of emotional, sexual and physical child abuse was the most important risk factor for the development of depression. The greatest risk factors for anxiety disorders were sexual child abuse and family violence. Strong correlations were also found between family violence or physical neglect and substance abuse.
Strong correlations were shown to exist between various ace s and later symptoms or diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders in persons abusing drugs or alcohol. It seems to be mainly child abuse and family violence which have a major impact on the future mental health of victims.

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Available from: Maud De Venter, Oct 03, 2014
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    • "ACEs have also been linked to increased risk of depression onset [36] [37] [38]. These studies link physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and parental alcohol and drug abuse to a vulnerability for depression symptom onset [36] [37]. In addition, residing in an urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged area has also been linked to risk of depression onset as well as drug use [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Native Americans disproportionately experience adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as well as health disparities, including high rates of posttraumatic stress, depression, and substance abuse. Many ACEs have been linked to methylation changes in genes that regulate the stress response, suggesting that these molecular changes may underlie the risk for psychiatric disorders related to ACEs. Methods. We reviewed published studies to provide evidence that ACE-related methylation changes contribute to health disparities in Native Americans. This framework may be adapted to understand how ACEs may result in health disparities in other racial/ethnic groups. Findings. Here we provide evidence that links ACEs to methylation differences in genes that regulate the stress response. Psychiatric disorders are also associated with methylation differences in endocrine, immune, and neurotransmitter genes that serve to regulate the stress response and are linked to psychiatric symptoms and medical morbidity. We provide evidence linking ACEs to these epigenetic modifications, suggesting that ACEs contribute to the vulnerability for developing psychiatric disorders in Native Americans. Conclusion. Additional studies are needed to better understand how ACEs contribute to health and well-being. These studies may inform future interventions to address these serious risks and promote the health and well-being of Native Americans.
    12/2013; 2013:410395. DOI:10.1155/2013/410395
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    ABSTRACT: Legislation to safeguard children from maltreatment by carers or violence by others was advanced in England and Scotland around 2004-2005 and resulted in different policies and services. We examined whether subsequent trends in injury admissions to hospital related to maltreatment or violence varied between the two countries. We analysed rates of all unplanned injury admission to National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England and Scotland between 2005 and 2011 for children and adolescents aged less than 19 years. We compared incidence trends for maltreatment or violence-related (MVR) injury and adjusted rate differences between 2005 and 2011 using Poisson or negative binomial regression models to adjust for seasonal effects and secular trends in non-MVR injury. Infants, children 1-10 years and adolescents 11-18 years were analysed separately. In 2005, MVR rates were similar in England and Scotland for infants and 1-10-year-olds, but almost twice as high in Scotland for 11-18-year-olds. MVR rates for infants increased by similar amounts in both countries, in line with rising non-MVR rates in England but contrary to declines in Scotland. Among 1-10-year-olds, MVR rates increased in England and declined in Scotland, in line with increasing non-MVR rates in England and declining rates in Scotland. Among 11-18-year-olds, MVR rates declined more steeply in Scotland than in England along with declines in non-MVR trends. Diverging trends in England and Scotland may reflect true changes in the occurrence of MVR injury or differences in the way services recognise and respond to these children, record such injuries or a combination of these factors. Further linkage of data from surveys and services for child maltreatment and violence could help distinguish the impact of policies.
    BMJ Open 04/2014; 4(4):e004474. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004474 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In Pakistan, no study on mental health status of male prisoners has been done so far. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in male Pakistani prisoners at an urban jail. Methods: This study was conducted on 100 male prisoners at District Jail Lahore, Pakistan. Basic demographic characteristics, past medical history, and history of substance abuse, child abuse and child labor were obtained. Presence of depression was assessed by a validated Urdu translation of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Mean BDI scores for categories of binary variables were compared with each other by applying independent samples t-test. Results: The total prevalence of depression as per the BDI was 85%. 30% of prisoners had mild depression, 20% had moderate depression and 35% had severe depression. Prisoners with a history of substance abuse, childhood sexual abuse, chronic medical diseases and child labor were found to have significantly higher BDI scores. Conclusion: Pakistani male prisoners have a markedly high prevalence of depression leading to significant psychiatric morbidity. We suggest here, provision of psychological support along with depression management and rehabilitation therapies such as musical therapy among others as essential to reduce mental health problems in prison inmates.
    Healthmed 06/2014; 8(6):699. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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