Glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria predict mortality independently from coronary artery calcified plaque in the Diabetes Heart Study

Cardiovascular Diabetology (Impact Factor: 3.71). 04/2013; 12(1):68. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-68
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Background
Risk stratification in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains an important priority in the management of associated morbidity and mortality, including from cardiovascular disease (CVD). The current investigation examined whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) were independent predictors of CVD-mortality in European Americans (EAs) with T2D after accounting for subclinical CVD.

The family-based Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) cohort (n=1,220) had baseline measures of serum creatinine, eGFR, UACR and coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) assessed by non-contrast computed tomography scan. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to determine risk for all-cause mortality and CVD-mortality associated with indices of kidney disease after accounting for traditional CVD risk factors and CAC as a measure of subclinical CVD.

Participants were followed for 8.2±2.6 years (mean±SD) during which time 247 (20.9%) were deceased, 107 (9.1%) from CVD. Univariate analyses revealed positive associations between serum creatinine (HR:1.56; 95% CI:1.37–1.80; p<0.0001) and UACR (1.59; 1.43–1.77; p>0.0001) and negative associations between serum albumin (0.74; 0.65–0.84; p<0.0001) and eGFR (0.66; 0.58–0.76; p<0.0001) with all-cause mortality. Associations remained significant after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors, as well as for CAC. Similar trends were noted when predicting risk for CVD-mortality.

The DHS reveals that kidney function and albuminuria are independent risk factors for all-cause mortality and CVD-mortality in EAs with T2D, even after accounting for CAC.

Download full-text


Available from: Donald W Bowden, Jun 03, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Urine albumin creatinine ratio, UACR, is positively associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in observational studies. Whether a high UACR is also associated with other causes of death is unclear. We investigated the association between UACR and cause-specific mortality. We included a total of 9,125 individuals from two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, conducted in 1993-94 and 1999-2001, respectively. Urine albumin creatinine ratio was measured from spot urine samples by standard methods. Information on causes of death was obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death until 31 December 2010. There were a total of 920 deaths, and the median follow-up was 11.3 years. Multivariable Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis showed statistically significant positive associations between UACR status and risk of all-cause mortality, endocrine nutritional and metabolic diseases, mental and behavioural disorders, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the respiratory system with hazard ratios 1.56, 6.98, 2.34, 2.03, and 1.91, for the fourth UACR compared with the first, respectively. Using UACR as a continuous variable, we also found a statistically significant positive association with risk of death caused by diseases of the digestive system with a hazard ratio of 1.02 per 10 mg/g higher UACR. We found statistically significant positive associations between baseline UACR and death from all-cause mortality, endocrine nutritional and metabolic diseases, and diseases of the circulatory system and possibly mental and behavioural disorders, and diseases of the respiratory and digestive system.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e93212. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093212 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Not all individuals with type 2 diabetes and high coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) experience the same risk for adverse outcomes. This study examined a subset of high-risk individuals based on CAC >1,000 mg (using a total mass score) and evaluated whether differences in a range of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors provided further insights into risk for mortality.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed contributors to all-cause mortality among 371 European American individuals with type 2 diabetes and CAC >1,000 from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) after 8.2 ± 3.0 years (mean ± SD) of follow-up. Differences in known CVD risk factors, including modifiable CVD risk factors, were compared between living (n = 218) and deceased (n = 153) participants. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify risk for all-cause mortality.RESULTS: Deceased participants had a longer duration of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.02) and reduced use of cholesterol-lowering medications (P = 0.004). Adjusted analyses revealed that vascular calcified plaque scores were associated with increased risk for mortality (hazard ratio 1.31-1.63; 3.89 × 10(-5) < P < 0.03). Higher HbA1c, lipids, and C-reactive protein and reduced kidney function also were associated with a 1.1- to 1.5-fold increased risk for mortality (3.45 × 10(-6) < P < 0.03) after adjusting for confounding factors.CONCLUSIONS: Even in this high-risk group, vascular calcification and known CVD risk factors provide useful information for ongoing assessment. The use of cholesterol-lowering medication seemed to be protective for mortality.
    Diabetes Care 07/2014; 37(10). DOI:10.2337/dc14-0081 · 8.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of renal function on bone mineral density (BMD) and arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. We studied 252 postmenopausal women who visited a health promotion center for a medical checkup. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formula and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formula. Areal BMD measurements were performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and arterial stiffness was measured using the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Results: The eGFR according to the CG formula was significantly correlated with age, BMI, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, baPWV, and BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip sites. However, the eGFR according to the MDRD formula was significantly correlated with age and baPWV but not with BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip sites. Decreased renal function (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) according to the CG formula) was independently associated with decreased BMD at the femoral neck site and with increased baPWV (>1,500 cm/s) after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women with decreased renal function are more likely to have a decreased BMD and greater arterial stiffness. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 07/2014; 78(2). DOI:10.1159/000363746 · 1.25 Impact Factor
Show more