Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases

Entropy (Impact Factor: 1.5). 04/2013; 15(4):1416-1463. DOI: 10.3390/e15041416


Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup ® , is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat. Glyphosate's inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is an overlooked component of its toxicity to mammals. CYP enzymes play crucial roles in biology, one of which is to detoxify xenobiotics. Thus, glyphosate enhances the damaging effects of other food borne chemical residues and environmental toxins. Negative impact on the body is insidious and manifests slowly over time as inflammation damages cellular systems throughout the body. Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We explain the documented effects of glyphosate and its ability to induce disease, and we show that glyphosate is the "textbook example" of exogenous semiotic entropy: the disruption of homeostasis by environmental toxins.

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    • "Nevertheless, some studies have reported on toxic effects of glyphosate to a number of marine microorganisms such as diatoms as Nitzschia sp. or Skeletonema costatum or to cyanobacteria as Aphanizomenon flos-aquae indicating that glyphosate may negatively influence the microbial community (Peterson et al., 1994; Tsui and Chu, 2003). Moreover, Samsel and Seneff (2013a) showed an inhibitory effect of glyphosate to the enzyme cytochrome P450 and thus, a potential toxic effect to mammals. There is the hypothesis glyphosate may be an essential factor in the development of celiac disease in humans in which glyphosate causes disturbances of the gut bacterial community (Samsel and Seneff, 2013b). "
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    • "Very low, 700 ppb (maximum contaminant level) (Greene and Pohanish 2005b). Recently, Samsel and Seneff (2013) reported glyphosate mediated inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human along with the negative effect on the amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome. Above authors are of the view that continuous and long-term exposure to glyphosate is responsible for some of the modern human diseases "
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    ABSTRACT: Storage of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers at 8–12 °C (depending on the countries either 8–10 or 10–12 °C) with 85–90 % RH in cold stores is common practice because at this storage temperature the accumulation of sugars is minimum and potatoes remain suitable for processing. This temperature is however, also suitable for sprout growth and therefore, use of a sprout suppressant becomes essential. Isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate (CIPC) is the most commonly used sprout suppressant used in potatoes. It is applied in the form of aerosol on the stored potatoes as a Post-harvest application. The possibility of using glyphosate as a pre-harvest foliar application on the potato crop to check the sprout growth of potatoes during subsequent storage has been reviewed in this article. Relative comparison between CIPC and glyphosate showed that glyphosate is safer in terms of lower mammalian toxicity with respect to oral LD50, contaminant level for human toxicity (long-term), acceptable daily intake limit (for human body) and acceptable residue limit (for human consumption). Comparatively, CIPC is more harmful to birds, fishes and other aquatic animals, worms and the environment. There are growing concerns regarding degradation products/metabolites of CIPC as they are more toxic and cytolytic in nature. Practical aspects such as cost of the chemical, application cost and ease of application also favor the glyphosate. Higher water solubility of glyphosate over the CIPC and its metabolites is also a point, as this can assist in minimizing the residue levels of glyphosate either in processed or cooked potato tubers. It is proposed that outcome of the further research work, especially on the suggested lines, may help in developing glyphosate as an alternative/supplementary to CIPC for its use as sprout suppressant on potatoes stored at 8–12 °C.
    Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 12/2014; 19:293305. DOI:10.1007/s40502-014-0106-7
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    • "Currently, 93% of the soybean crops in the United States are GM. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup®, is a major environmental toxin implicated in the increased incidence of autism, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and many other diseases (114). Thus, considering the lack of existing data regarding the long-term neurological consequences of consuming a soy-based diet during infancy, particularly in children with developmental disabilities, alternative formulas should be considered when clinically indicated. "
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism, and Alzheimer's disease are co-morbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity, and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold.
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