Article

Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases

Entropy (Impact Factor: 1.56). 04/2013; 15:1416-1463. DOI: 10.3390/e15041416

ABSTRACT Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup ® , is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat. Glyphosate's inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is an overlooked component of its toxicity to mammals. CYP enzymes play crucial roles in biology, one of which is to detoxify xenobiotics. Thus, glyphosate enhances the damaging effects of other food borne chemical residues and environmental toxins. Negative impact on the body is insidious and manifests slowly over time as inflammation damages cellular systems throughout the body. Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. We explain the documented effects of glyphosate and its ability to induce disease, and we show that glyphosate is the "textbook example" of exogenous semiotic entropy: the disruption of homeostasis by environmental toxins.

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Available from: Anthony Samsel, Jul 18, 2015
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    • "Very low, 700 ppb (maximum contaminant level) (Greene and Pohanish 2005b). Recently, Samsel and Seneff (2013) reported glyphosate mediated inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzyme in human along with the negative effect on the amino acid biosynthesis by the gut microbiome. Above authors are of the view that continuous and long-term exposure to glyphosate is responsible for some of the modern human diseases "
    12/2014; 19:293305. DOI:10.1007/s40502-014-0106-7
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    • "en las abejas estudiadas, es necesario analizar efectos a largo plazo ya que muchos de los plaguicidas actúan sobre el sistema inmune, volviendo a los organismos más susceptibles a sufrir efectos por otros plaguicidas e incluso más propensos a enfermedades (Samsel & Seneff 2013). Esto hace necesario evaluar más detalladamente al glifosato antes de decidir que no es tóxico, ya que se ha demostrado que puede actuar de manera sinérgica con otros plaguicidas, como ocurre con clorpirifos y metil metsulfuron que incrementan su toxicidad en plantas y peces (Kudsk & Mathiassen 2004, Rendón-von Osten et al. 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the toxicity of field concentrations of glyphosate on the mortality of two bee species occurring in the Soconusco Region, Chiapas, Mexico. We did not find any significant differ-ence in the mortality between exposed and control groups.
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    • "Glyphosate and several glyphosate formulations have a cytotoxic effect on human cells, and endocrine disruption, specifically inhibition of estrogen synthesis , has been demonstrated (Richard et al., 2005; Benachour et al., 2007; Benachour and Seralini, 2009; Mesnage et al., 2012). Glyphosate formulations also may cause birth defects or adverse reproductive effects in vertebrates or contribute to a variety of human diseases (Daruich et al., 2001; Dallegrave et al., 2003, 2007; Paganelli et al., 2010; Samsel and Seneff, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Glyphosate use in the United States increased from less than 5,000 to more than 80,000 metric tons/yr between 1987 and 2007. Glyphosate is popular due to its ease of use on soybean, cotton, and corn crops that are genetically modified to tolerate it, utility in no-till farming practices, utility in urban areas, and the perception that it has low toxicity and little mobility in the environment. This compilation is the largest and most comprehensive assessment of the environmental occurrence of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the United States conducted to date, summarizing the results of 3,732 water and sediment and 1,018 quality assurance samples collected between 2001 and 2010 from 38 states. Results indicate that glyphosate and AMPA are usually detected together, mobile, and occur widely in the environment. Glyphosate was detected without AMPA in only 2.3% of samples, whereas AMPA was detected without glyphosate in 17.9% of samples. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected frequently in soils and sediment, ditches and drains, precipitation, rivers, and streams; and less frequently in lakes, ponds, and wetlands; soil water; and groundwater. Concentrations of glyphosate were below the levels of concern for humans or wildlife; however, pesticides are often detected in mixtures. Ecosystem effects of chronic low-level exposures to pesticide mixtures are uncertain. The environmental health risk of low-level detections of glyphosate, AMPA, and associated adjuvants and mixtures remain to be determined.
    JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 04/2014; 50(2). DOI:10.1111/jawr.12159
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