Combined Portal Vein Resection for Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: A Meta-analysis of Comparative Studies
ABSTRACT Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) frequently invades into the adjacent portal vein, and portal vein resection (PVR) is the only way to manage this condition and achieve negative resection margins. However, the safety and effectiveness of PVR is controversial. Studies analyzing the effect of PVR on the surgical and pathological outcomes in the management of HCCA with gross portal vein involvement were considered eligible for this meta-analysis. The outcome variables analyzed included postoperative morbidity, mortality, survival rate, proportion of R0 resection, lymph node metastasis, microscopic vascular invasion, and perineural invasion. From 11 studies, 371 patients who received PVR and 1,029 who did not were identified and analyzed. Data from patients who received combined PVR correlated with higher postoperative death rates (OR = 2.31; 95 % CI, 1.21-4.43; P = 0.01) and more advanced tumor stage. No significant difference was detected in terms of morbidity, proportion of R0 resection, or 5-year survival rate. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that in centers with more experience or studies published after 2007, combined PVR did not cause significantly higher postoperative death. No strong evidence could suggest that combined PVR leads to more morbidity or mortality for patients with HCCA when the portal vein is grossly involved. In addition, combined PVR is oncologically valuable because R0 resection and 5-year survival did not differ significantly between two cohorts, despite the fact that the PVR cohort consisted of patients with more advanced HCCA.
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ABSTRACT: Background Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is the most common malignant tumor affecting the extrahepatic bile duct. Surgical treatment offers the only possibility of cure, and it requires removal of all tumoral tissues with adequate resection margins. The aims of this review are to summarize the findings and to discuss the controversies on the extent of surgical resection aiming at cure for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Methods The English medical literatures on hilar cholangiocarcinoma were studied to review on the relevance of adequate resection margins, routine caudate lobe resection, extent of liver resection, and combined vascular resection on perioperative and long-term survival outcomes of patients with resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Results Complete resection of tumor represents the most important prognostic factor of long-term survival for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The primary aim of surgery is to achieve R0 resection. When R1 resection is shown intraoperatively, further resection is recommended. Combined hepatic resection is now generally accepted as a standard procedure even for Bismuth type I/II tumors. Routine caudate lobe resection is also advocated for cure. The extent of hepatic resection remains controversial. Most surgeons recommend major hepatic resection. However, minor hepatic resection has also been advocated in most patients. The decision to carry out right- or left-sided hepatectomy is made according to the predominant site of the lesion. Portal vein resection should be considered when its involvement by tumor is suspected. Conclusion The curative treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma remains challenging. Advances in hepatobiliary techniques have improved the perioperative and long-term survival outcomes of this tumor.International Journal of Colorectal Disease 11/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1007/s00384-014-2063-z · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common primary malignancy of the liver arising from malignant transformation and growth of biliary ductal epithelium. Approximately 50-70 % of CCAs arise at the hilar plate of the biliary tree, which are termed hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). Various staging systems are currently employed to classify HCs and determine resectability. Depending on the pre-operative staging, the mainstays of treatment include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and photodynamic therapy. Surgical resection offers the only chance for cure of HC and achieving an R0 resection has demonstrated improved overall survival. However, obtaining longitudinal and radial surgical margins that are free of tumor can be difficult and frequently requires extensive resections, particularly for advanced HCs. Pre-operative interventions may be necessary to prepare patients for major hepatic resections, including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, and portal vein embolization. Multimodal therapy that combines chemotherapy with external beam radiation, stereotactic body radiation therapy, bile duct brachytherapy, and/or photodynamic therapy are all possible strategies for advanced HC prior to resection. Orthotopic liver transplantation is another therapeutic option that can achieve complete extirpation of locally advanced HC in judiciously selected patients following standardized neoadjuvant protocols.Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 06/2014; 399(6). DOI:10.1007/s00423-014-1219-1 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Perihilar cholangiocarcinomas often involve the bifurcation of the portal vein and the hepatic artery at initial presentation. Previously, vascular invasion was a major obstacle for R0 resection; therefore, such tumors were regarded as locally advanced, unresectable disease. Recently, in leading centers, these tumors have been resected using a specific technique, vascular resection and reconstruction. Vascular resection is classified into three types: portal vein resection alone, hepatic artery resection alone, and simultaneous resection of both the portal vein and hepatic artery. Of these, portal vein resection is widely performed, whereas hepatic artery resection remains controversial. Therefore, hepatectomy combined with simultaneous resection of the portal vein and hepatic artery represents one of the most complicated and challenging procedures in hepatobiliary surgery. The survival benefit of this extended procedure remains unproven, and there is only a single study reporting an unexpectedly favorable outcome in 50 patients. Considering the dismal survival in patients with unresectable disease, hepatic artery resection and/or portal vein resection may be a promising option of choice. However, the technique is highly demanding and has not been standardized. Therefore, this extended surgery may be allowed only in selected hepatobiliary centers.Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences 08/2014; 21(8). DOI:10.1002/jhbp.121