Alterations of Superficial White Matter in Schizophrenia and Relationship to Cognitive Performance.
ABSTRACT Post-mortem studies have demonstrated alterations in superficial white matter (SWM) in schizophrenia patients. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to assess SWM in vivo, and compare SWM fractional anisotropy (FA) in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy controls. The assessment of SWM in vivo also provides an opportunity to identify novel neural correlates of cognitive performance, and potential cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Forty-four patients with schizophrenia and 44 matched healthy controls underwent neuroimaging and cognitive protocols. Using an SWM mask, and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics differences in SWM-FA were examined between groups. SWM-FA clusters different between groups were then used to predict cognitive performance with multiple linear regression. The relative contribution of SWM fiber subtypes (deep white matter extensions vs. U-fibers and intraregional fibers) from significantly different clusters was examined. Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia had reduced FA in five SWM clusters: the largest a left posterior parieto-occipital cluster, followed by four clusters in the left frontal lobe. SWM-FA in frontal lobe clusters predicted attention, working memory, and processing speed performance in healthy controls, but not in patients with schizophrenia. The majority of streamlines tracked from these clusters were restricted to U-fibers and intraregional fibers, rather than deep white matter extensions. Our analyses revealed prominent SWM disruption in patients with schizophrenia compared to controls. SWM-cognition relationships shown in healthy individuals, were disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. SWM may be an important neurobiological substrate of cognitive performance and a novel cortical treatment target for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 16 April 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.93.
SourceAvailable from: Wen Qin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), exhibiting improved sensitivity and specificity in detecting developmental and pathological changes in neural tissues. However, little attention was paid to the performances of DKI and DTI in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia. In this study, DKI and DTI were performed in 94 schizophrenia patients and 91 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. White matter integrity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (AK) and radial kurtosis (RK) of DKI and FA, MD, AD and RD of DTI. Group differences in these parameters were compared using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) (P < 0.01, corrected). The sensitivities in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia were MK (34%) > AK (20%) > RK (3%) and RD (37%) > FA (24%) > MD (21%) for DKI, and RD (43%) > FA (30%) > MD (21%) for DTI. DKI-derived diffusion parameters (RD, FA and MD) were sensitive to detect abnormality in white matter regions (the corpus callosum and anterior limb of internal capsule) with coherent fiber arrangement; however, the kurtosis parameters (MK and AK) were sensitive to reveal abnormality in white matter regions (the juxtacortical white matter and corona radiata) with complex fiber arrangement. In schizophrenia, the decreased AK suggests axonal damage; however, the increased RD indicates myelin impairment. These findings suggest that diffusion and kurtosis parameters could provide complementary information and they should be jointly used to reveal pathological changes in schizophrenia.01/2015; 7:170-6. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.12.008
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies in schizophrenia report widespread aberrations in brain white matter (WM). These appear related to poorer neurocognitive performance and higher levels of negative and positive symptomatology. However, identification of the most salient WM aberrations to neurocognition and clinical symptoms is limited by relatively small samples with divergent results. Methods We examined 53 well-characterized patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls. All participants were administered a computerized neurocognitive battery, which evaluated performance in several domains. Patients were assessed for negative and positive symptoms. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of WM cortical regions and WM fiber tracts were compared across the groups. FA values were also used to predict neurocognitive performance and symptoms. Results We confirm widespread aberrant WM microstructure in a relatively large sample of well-characterized patients with schizophrenia in comparison to healthy participants. Moreover, we illustrate the utility of FA measures in predicting global neurocognitive performance in healthy participants and schizophrenia patients, especially for reaction time. FA was less predictive of clinical symptomatology. Conclusions Using a standardized computerized neurocognitive battery and diffusion tensor imaging we show that behavioral performance is moderated by a particular constellation of WM microstructure in healthy individuals that differs in schizophrenia.Schizophrenia Research 10/2014; 161(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.09.026 · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evidence shows that there are reductions in gray matter volume (GMV) and changes in long association white matter fibres within the left insula-temporoparietal junction (TPJ) during the early stages of psychotic disorders but less is known about short association fibres (sAFs). In this study we sought to characterise the changes in sAFs and associated volumetric changes of the left insula-TPJ during the early stages of psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained from a sample of young people with psychosis (n = 42) and healthy controls (n = 45), and cortical parcellations of the left insula-TPJ were used as seeding masks to reconstruct 13 sAFs. Compared to healthy counterparts, the psychosis group showed significant reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the sAFs connecting the superior (STG) and middle temporal gyri (MTG) and as well as reduced GMV within the inferior temporal gyrus and increased white matter volume (WMV) within Heschl's gyrus (HG). Furthermore, adolescent-onset psychosis subjects (onset 18 year or earlier) showed FA reductions in the STG-HG sAF when compared to adult-onset subjects, but this was not associated with changes in GMV nor WMV of the STG or HG. These findings suggest that during the early stages of psychosis, changes in sAFs and associated cortical GMV and WMV appear to occur independently, however age of onset of a psychotic syndrome/disorder influences the pattern of neuroanatomical abnormalities.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112842. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112842 · 3.53 Impact Factor