Foguet Boreu Q, Roura Poch P, Bullón Chia A, Mauri Martin C, Gordo Serra N, Cecília Costa R; en representación del grupo de Riesgo Cardiovascular en Trastorno Mental Severo (RISCA-TMS). [Cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular risk and quality of life in patients with a severe mental disorder]. Aten Primaria. 2013 Mar;45(3):141-8. doi: 10.1016/j.aprim.2012.10.010. Epub 2012 Nov 30. Spanish. PubMed PMID: 23200694.
To determine the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), level of cardiovascular risk (CVR) and to analyse the relationship between CVR and quality of life in patients with severe mental illness (SMI).
DESIGN OF STUDY:
Cross sectional study.
Mental Health Service, Consorci Hospitalari de Vic (Barcelona).
Patients over 18 years diagnosed with SMI.
Data was collected on, socio-demographic variables, toxic habits, previous pathologies, family history of premature cardiovascular disease, psychiatric diagnoses, physical parameters and laboratory findings. The CVR was determined by the SCORE and REGICOR scales. Quality of life was measured by Euro-QoL and Seville Questionnaires.
A total of 137 patients with SMI were included; 64.9% female, and a mean age 51.1 years (SD 12.9). Major CVRF distribution: 40.1% smoking, 37.9% hypertension, 56.2% dyslipidemia, and 11.1% diabetes. The criteria for obesity and metabolic syndrome were met by 37.9% and 48.4% of the patients, respectively. The average major CVRF was 1.5 factors. The CVR was high in 4.6% of the sample by SCORE and in 5.4% by REGICOR. Neither the patients who accumulated more CVRF or those with high CVR scores showed a worse quality of life.
The most prevalent CVRF in patients with SMI are smoking and dyslipidemia, with a prevalence that exceeded population-based studies. The subgroup of depressive disorders showed a higher CVR and worse quality of life. No relationships were found between the CVR and the quality of life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 - August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI.
World psychiatry: official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) 02/2011; 10(1):52-77. DOI:10.1002/j.2051-5545.2011.tb00014.x · 14.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: People with severe mental illness (SMI) appear to have an elevated risk of death from cardiovascular disease, but results regarding cancer mortality are conflicting.
To estimate this excess mortality and the contribution of antipsychotic medication, smoking, and social deprivation.
Retrospective cohort study.
United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database. Patients Two cohorts were compared: people with SMI diagnoses and people without such diagnoses. Main Outcome Measure Mortality rates for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and the 7 most common cancers in the United Kingdom.
A total of 46 136 people with SMI and 300 426 without SMI were selected for the study. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD mortality in people with SMI compared with controls were 3.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-5.21) for people 18 through 49 years old, 1.86 (95% CI, 1.63-2.12) for those 50 through 75 years old, and 1.05 (95% CI, 0.92-1.19) for those older than 75 years. For stroke deaths, the HRs were 2.53 (95% CI, 0.99-6.47) for those younger than 50 years, 1.89 (95% CI, 1.50-2.38) for those 50 through 75 years old, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.17-1.54) for those older than 75 years. The only significant result for cancer deaths was an unadjusted HR for respiratory tumors of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.04-1.68) for those 50 to 75 years old, which lost statistical significance after controlling for smoking and social deprivation. Increased HRs for CHD mortality occurred irrespective of sex, SMI diagnosis, or prescription of antipsychotic medication during follow-up. However, a higher prescribed dose of antipsychotics predicted greater risk of mortality from CHD and stroke.
This large community sample demonstrates that people with SMI have an increased risk of death from CHD and stroke that is not wholly explained by antipsychotic medication, smoking, or social deprivation scores. Rates of nonrespiratory cancer mortality were not raised. Further research is required concerning prevention of this mortality, including cardiovascular risk assessment, monitoring of antipsychotic medication, and attention to diet and exercise.
Archives of General Psychiatry 03/2007; 64(2):242-9. DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.64.2.242 · 14.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are vulnerable to developing key modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotic medications, which are commonly used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, have been linked to risk for adverse metabolic changes in patients. This review reports the prevalence of medical risk factors in the general population as well as in those patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and discusses treatment strategies and lifestyle changes that patients can make in order to reduce their risks for certain diseases.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 12/2006; 67(11):e16. DOI:10.4088/JCP.1106e16 · 5.50 Impact Factor
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