Ureaplasma and BPD
ABSTRACT Ureaplasma is an organism with low virulence and is a commensal of the lower genito-urinary tract in females. From here, it can gain entry in the amniotic fluid to cause inflammation in the amniotic compartment during pregnancy. Ureaplasma spp. are the most common organisms isolated from women with chorioamnionitis. Ureaplasma spp. are associated with increased risk for preterm labor and morbidity in the preterm neonate. However, there is some controversy regarding the importance of Ureaplasma in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This article will review the microbiology of Ureaplasma, host innate immune responses, and the pathology of lung injury in animal models of Ureaplasma chorioamnionitis. We will review epidemiological studies of Ureaplasma and BPD in preterm infants and efficacy of antibiotics in preventing preterm labor and BPD.
- SourceAvailable from: Nicholas Kadar[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Intra-amniotic infection and inflammation are major mechanisms of disease responsible for spontaneous preterm labor and delivery. However, diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection is challenging because most infections are subclinical and amniotic fluid (AF) cultures take several days before results are available. Several tests have been proposed for the rapid diagnosis of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) or intra-amniotic inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic performance of the AF Mass Restricted (MR) score in comparison with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) for the identification of MIAC or inflammation. Methods: AF samples were collected from patients with singleton gestations and symptoms of preterm labor (n=100). Intra-amniotic inflammation was defined as >100 white blood cells/mm(3) (WBCs) in AF; MIAC was defined as a positive AF culture. AF IL-6 and MMP-8 were determined using ELISA. The MR score was obtained using the Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and logistic regression models were fit to construct receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the identification of each outcome. The McNemar's test and paired sample non-parametric statistical techniques were used to test for differences in diagnostic performance metrics. Results: 1) The prevalence of MIAC and intra-amniotic inflammation was 34% (34/100) and 40% (40/100), respectively; 2) there were no significant differences in sensitivity of the three tests under study (MR score, IL-6 or MMP-8) in the identification of either MIAC or intra-amniotic inflammation (using the following cutoffs: MR score >2, IL-6 >11.4 ng/mL, and MMP-8 >23 ng/mL); 3) there was no significant difference in the sensitivity among the three tests for the same outcomes when the false positive rate was fixed at 15%; 4) the specificity for IL-6 was not significantly different from that of the MR score in identifying either MIAC or intra-amniotic inflammation when using previously reported thresholds; and 5) there were no significant differences in the area under the ROC curve when comparing the MR score, IL-6 or MMP-8 in the identification of these outcomes. Conclusions: IL-6 and the MR score have equivalent diagnostic performance in the identification of MIAC or intra-amniotic inflammation. Selection from among these three tests (MR score, IL-6 and MMP-8) for diagnostic purposes should be based on factors such as availability, reproducibility, and cost. The MR score requires a protein chip and a SELDI-TOF instrument which are not widely available. In contrast, immunoassays for IL-6 can be performed in the majority of clinical laboratories.The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 09/2013; 27(8). DOI:10.3109/14767058.2013.844123 · 1.37 Impact Factor
- Korean Journal of Pediatrics 11/2013; 56(11):474-476. DOI:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.11.474
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are susceptible to intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum, but only protypical TH2/M2 BALB/c mice develop severe chorioamnionitis, fetal infection, and fetal inflammatory response syndrome-like (FIRS) pathology. Microscopy, gene expression analysis, and ELISA were used to identify placental innate immune responses relevant to macrophage polarity, severe chorioamnionitis, and fetal infection. Both mouse strains exhibited a pro-M2 cytokine profile at the maternal/fetal interface. In BALB/c mice, expression of CD14 and TLRs 1, 2, 6 was increased in infected placentas; TLR2 and CD14 were localized to neutrophils. Increased TLR2/CD14 was also observed in BALB/c syncytiotrophoblasts in tissues with pathological evidence of FIRS. In contrast, expression in C57BL/6 placentas was either unchanged or down-regulated. Our findings show a link between increased syncytiotrophoblast expression of CD14/TLR2 and FIRS-like pathology in BALB/c mice. Functional studies are required to determine if CD14 is contributing to fetal morbidity during chorioamnionitis.American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 12/2013; 71(3). DOI:10.1111/aji.12192 · 2.44 Impact Factor