Ureaplasma and BPD
ABSTRACT Ureaplasma is an organism with low virulence and is a commensal of the lower genito-urinary tract in females. From here, it can gain entry in the amniotic fluid to cause inflammation in the amniotic compartment during pregnancy. Ureaplasma spp. are the most common organisms isolated from women with chorioamnionitis. Ureaplasma spp. are associated with increased risk for preterm labor and morbidity in the preterm neonate. However, there is some controversy regarding the importance of Ureaplasma in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This article will review the microbiology of Ureaplasma, host innate immune responses, and the pathology of lung injury in animal models of Ureaplasma chorioamnionitis. We will review epidemiological studies of Ureaplasma and BPD in preterm infants and efficacy of antibiotics in preventing preterm labor and BPD.
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ABSTRACT: While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intra-uterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may also constitute a critical process during healthy pregnancies in humans with yet unclear developmental importance. Metagenomic sequencing has elucidated a rich placental microbiome in normal term pregnancies likely providing important metabolic and immune contributions to the growing fetus. Conversely, an altered microbial composition during pregnancy may produce aberrant metabolites impairing fetal brain development and life-long neurological outcomes. Here we review the current understanding of microbial colonization at the feto-maternal interface and explain how normal gut colonization drives a balanced neonatal mucosal immune system, while dysbiosis contributes to aberrant immune function early in life and beyond. We discuss how maternal genetics, diet, medications and probiotics inform the fetal microbiome in preparation for perinatal and postnatal bacterial colonization.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.163.Pediatric Research 10/2014; 77(1-2). DOI:10.1038/pr.2014.163 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Chorioamnionitis is a gestational pathological condition characterized by acute inflammation of the amniochorionic membranes and placentas leading to high concentrations of IL-1β, Il-6, Il-8 and TGF-β; in the amniotic fluid. In normal conditions, the permeability of foeto-maternal barrier is due to the assembly and maintenance of different cellular junctional domains. Methods In the present study, first we aimed to evaluate the protein expression (by immunohistochemistry and western blotting) and mRNA (by real time PCR) levels of the molecular components of tight junctions (Zonula occludens-1 and occludin), and of adherent junctions (VE-cadherin and β;-catenin) in placentas from chorioamnionitis compared to that in normal pregnancies. Results Western blotting results showed a significant down-regulation of occludin in placentas affected with chorioamnionitis. No differences were detected for the other proteins analysed. We evaluated whether occludin expression was regulated by IL-1β;, IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β; by means of in vitro studies using HUVEC cultures and demonstrated a key role of IL-1β; and TGF-β; in the disappearance of occludin at cellular border. Conclusions. We conclude by suggesting a pivotal role of these two cytokines in facilitating intra-placental infection via para-cellular way due to the disassembly of tight junctions at trophoblastic and endothelial cells in placental tissues.Placenta 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.placenta.2014.03.016 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Arrested alveolarization is the pathological hallmark of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a complication of premature birth. Here, the impact of systemic application of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on post-natal alveolarization was assessed in a mouse BPD model. Exposure of newborn mice to 85% O2 for 10 days reduced the total lung alveoli number by 56% and increased alveolar septal wall thickness by 29%, as assessed by state-of-the-art stereological analysis. Systemic application of H2S using the slow-release H2S donor GYY4137 for 10 days resulted in pronounced improvement in lung alveolarization in pups breathing 85% O2, compared with vehicle-treated littermates. Although without impact on lung oxidative status, systemic H2S blunted leukocyte infiltration into alveolar airspaces provoked by hyperoxia, and restored normal lung interleukin 10 levels that were otherwise depressed by 85% O2. Treatment of primary mouse alveolar type II (ATII) cells with the rapid-release H2S donor NaHS had no impact on cell viability; however, NaHS promoted ATII cell migration. While exposure of ATII cells to 85% O2 caused dramatic changes in mRNA expression, exposure to either GYY4137 or NaHS had no impact on ATII cell mRNA expression, as assessed by microarray, suggesting that the effects observed were independent of changes in gene expression. The impact of NaHS on ATII cell migration was attenuated by glibenclamide, implicating ion channels; and was accompanied by activation of Akt, hinting at two possible mechanisms of H2S action. These data support further investigation of H2S as a candidate interventional strategy to limit the arrested alveolarization associated with BPD.AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 02/2014; 306(7). DOI:10.1152/ajplung.00361.2013 · 4.04 Impact Factor