Initial insight into why physical activity may help prevent adolescent smoking uptake

Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, United States. Electronic address: .
Drug and alcohol dependence (Impact Factor: 3.42). 04/2013; 132(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.03.006
Source: PubMed


Whereas research supports the importance of regular physical activity to decrease the likelihood of smoking uptake, the mechanisms accounting for this relationship are poorly understood. We sought to determine whether the enjoyment or reward derived from physical activity is one mechanism underlying the relationship between smoking and physical activity.

The sample was composed of 1374 adolescents participating in a prospective longitudinal survey study of health behaviors. Variables were measured via self-report every six months for eight waves of data spanning four years.

An associative processes latent growth curve model revealed a significant and negative indirect effect of baseline physical activity on baseline smoking through baseline physical activity reward (b(indirect)=-.18, z=-3.11, p=.002; 95% CI=-.29, -.07). Similarly, there was a significant and negative indirect effect of physical activity trend on smoking trend through physical activity reward trend (b(indirect)=-.16, z=-2.09, p=.04; 95% CI=-.30, -.01). The effect of physical activity on smoking at baseline and across time was completely mediated by physical activity reward. There was less support for the idea that smoking progression was associated with reduced physical activity reward and subsequent declines in physical activity.

This study provides the first evidence implicating physical activity reward as one mechanism by which physical activity reduces the likelihood of adolescent smoking uptake. Smoking prevention interventions that promote physical activity and target physical activity enjoyment may have an important impact on adolescent smoking initiation and progression.

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    ABSTRACT: AimsTo evaluate gender differences in the role of positive and negative affect on smoking uptake.DesignProspective longitudinal cohort study of adolescent health behaviors.SettingFour suburban secondary schools outside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.ParticipantsAdolescents (n = 1357) were surveyed every 6 months for 4 years (age 14-18 years).MeasurementsSmoking and affect were measured via survey at each of the eight time-points.FindingsA two-group associative process latent growth curve model revealed that baseline positive affect was related negatively to smoking progression for females (b = -0.031, Z = -4.00, P < 0.0001) but not for males (P = 0.33). This gender difference was significant, χ2(df = 1) = 8.24, P = 0.0041, indicating that for every standard deviation (SD) decrease in positive affect (SD = 2.90), there was a 10% increase [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04, 1.14] in the odds of smoking progression for females. Baseline negative affect was related significantly and positively to smoking progression for males (b = 0.038, Z =2.874, P = 0.004) and females (b = 0.025, Z =3.609, P < 0.0001), but the gender difference was not significant, χ2(df = 1) = 0.82, P = 0.37. Thus, on average, for every standard deviation (SD = 4.40) increase in baseline negative affect there was a 15% (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.26) increase in the odds of smoking progression for males and for females.Conclusions The impact of affect on adolescent smoking uptake varies by gender. Low positive affect (low experience of positive feelings or emotions) for females and high negative affect (high experience of negative feelings or emotions) for both males and females increases the risk for adolescent smoking.
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    ABSTRACT: Research has documented that physical activity is associated with a lower risk of adolescent smoking uptake, yet it is unclear whether this relationship exists for all types of physical activity. We sought to determine whether certain types of physical activity are associated with a decreased or an increased risk of adolescent smoking uptake. In this longitudinal cohort study, adolescents (n=1356) were surveyed every six months for four years (age 14-18years old). Smoking and physical activity were measured at each of the eight time-points. Physical activity that was negatively associated with smoking across the eight waves was considered positive physical activities (i.e., PPA; linked to not smoking such as racquet sports, running, and swimming laps). Physical activity that was positively associated with smoking across the eight waves were considered negative physical activities (i.e., NPA; linked to smoking such as skating, walking, bicycling, sport fighting, and competitive wrestling). Associative Processes Latent Growth Curve Modeling revealed that each 30-minute increase in NPA per week at baseline was associated with a 4-fold increased odds of smoking progression (OR=4.10, 95% CI=2.14, 7.83). By contrast, each 30-minute increase in PPA at baseline was associated with a 51% decrease in the odds of smoking progression (OR=.49, 95% CI=.25, .93). The type of physical activity that an adolescent engages appears to be important for the uptake of cigarette smoking among adolescents. These associative relationships warrant consideration in interventions to increase overall physical activity and those promoting physical activity to prevent smoking uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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