Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhea

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 04/2013; 381(9875). DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60222-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diarrhoea and pneumonia are the leading infectious causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. We comprehensively reviewed the epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia in 2010-11 to inform the planning of integrated control programmes for both illnesses. We estimated that, in 2010, there were 1·731 billion episodes of diarrhoea (36 million of which progressed to severe episodes) and 120 million episodes of pneumonia (14 million of which progressed to severe episodes) in children younger than 5 years. We estimated that, in 2011, 700 000 episodes of diarrhoea and 1·3 million of pneumonia led to death. A high proportion of deaths occurs in the first 2 years of life in both diseases-72% for diarrhoea and 81% for pneumonia. The epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and that of pneumonia overlap, which might be partly because of shared risk factors, such as undernutrition, suboptimum breastfeeding, and zinc deficiency. Rotavirus is the most common cause of vaccine-preventable severe diarrhoea (associated with 28% of cases), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (18·3%) of vaccine-preventable severe pneumonia. Morbidity and mortality from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea are falling, but action is needed globally and at country level to accelerate the reduction.

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    • "Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is an important cause of pneumonia , meningitis and other invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children <5 years of age, especially in developing countries [1] [2] [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) versus the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) to the National Immunization Schedule in Peru for prevention of pneumococcal disease (PD) in children <5 years of age. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model from the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative (version 2.0) was applied from the perspective of the Government of Peru. Twenty successive cohorts of children from birth to 5 years were evaluated. Clinical outcomes were pneumococcal pneumonia (PP), pneumococcal meningitis (PM), pneumococcal sepsis (PS) and acute otitis media from any causes (AOM). Measures included prevention of cases, neurological sequelae (NS), auditory sequelae (AS), deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs). A sensitivity analyses was also performed. For the 20 cohorts, net costs with PCV10 and PCV13 were US$ 363.26 million and US$ 408.26 million, respectively. PCV10 prevented 570,273 AOM; 79,937 PP; 2217 PM; 3049 PS; 282 NS; 173 AS; and 7512 deaths. PCV13 prevented 419,815 AOM; 112,331 PN; 3116 PM; 4285 PS; 404 NS; 248 AS; and 10,386 deaths. Avoided DALYs were 226,370 with PCV10 and 313,119 with PCV13. Saved treatment costs were US$ 37.39 million with PCV10 and US$ 47.22 million with PCV13. Costs per DALY averted were US$ 1605 for PCV10, and US$ 1304 for PCV13. Sensitivity analyses showed similar results. PCV13 has an extended dominance over PCV10. Both pneumococcal vaccines are cost effective in the Peruvian context. Although the net cost of vaccination with PCV10 is lower, PCV13 prevented more deaths, pneumococcal complications and sequelae. Costs per each prevented DALY were lower with PCV13. Thus, PCV13 would be the preferred policy; PCV10 would also be reasonable (and cost-saving relative to the status quo) if for some reason 13-valent were not feasible. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Vaccine 05/2015; 33. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.039 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    • "So far, 75 countries around the world have introduced either of the two RV vaccines through national immunization programmes, including 35 GAVI-eligible countries mostly in the African continent (PATH, 2014). With the effective implementation of these two RV vaccines in both developed and developing countries, the morbidity and mortality rates associated with RV disease have dramatically declined (Fernandes et al., 2014; Msimang et al., 2013; Seheri et al., 2012; Vesikari et al., 2013; Walker et al., 2013). In Africa, data from South Africa showed a significant delay in the RV season by up to 8 weeks when comparing pre-and post-vaccination parameters in some settings (Seheri et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G-(VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and genome segment combinations that result from a complex evolutionary history involving multiple host species. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 02/2015; 31. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2015.02.011 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Pneumonia and diarrhea, continue to be the leading causes of preventable child deaths globally, with 0 Á 7 and 1 Á 3 million deaths attributed to diarrhea and pneumonia respectively in children aged under 5 years [Walker et al., 2013]. Half of these deaths in young children are concentrated in five countries including Pakistan [Bhutta et al., 2013]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Human Bocaviruses (HBoV) have been detected in human respiratory and gastrointestinal infections worldwide. Four genotypes of HBoV (HBoV1-4) have been described; HBoV-1 is associated with respiratory tract infections while HBoV-2, -3, and -4 genotypes are considered as entero-pathogenic although the exact role largely remains unclear. The global prevalence of HBoV has been reported, but the epidemiological data from Pakistan is largely unavailable to date. This study was conducted to understand the genetic diversity and disease prevalence of HBoV in hospitalized Pakistani children with acute diarrhea. During 2009, a total of 365 stool samples were collected from children hospitalized with gastrointestinal symptoms (as per WHO case definitions) at Rawalpindi General Hospital, Pakistan. Demographic and clinical data were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. The samples were tested for HBoV and rotavirus using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. There were 47 (13%) samples positive for HBoV with 98% (n = 46) showing co-infection with rotavirus. HBoV-1 was the most frequently detected and was found in 94% samples followed by HBoV-2 and HBoV-3 genotypes. The mean age of infected children was 7.57 ± 5.4 months while detection was more frequent in males (n = 32, 68%). All cases recovered after 2.43 ± 1.0 mean days of treatment. On phylogenetic analysis, HBoV strains from Pakistan clustered closely with viruses from neighboring Bangladesh and China. These findings represent the first known epidemiological study in Pakistan to investigate the role of HBoV in acute gastroenteritis. The clinical data demonstrates that HBoV is not significantly associated with gastroenteritis alone and predominantly co-infections with rotavirus are found. J. Med. Virol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 01/2015; 87(4). DOI:10.1002/jmv.24090 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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