Article

Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhea

Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 04/2013; 381(9875). DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60222-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diarrhoea and pneumonia are the leading infectious causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. We comprehensively reviewed the epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia in 2010-11 to inform the planning of integrated control programmes for both illnesses. We estimated that, in 2010, there were 1·731 billion episodes of diarrhoea (36 million of which progressed to severe episodes) and 120 million episodes of pneumonia (14 million of which progressed to severe episodes) in children younger than 5 years. We estimated that, in 2011, 700 000 episodes of diarrhoea and 1·3 million of pneumonia led to death. A high proportion of deaths occurs in the first 2 years of life in both diseases-72% for diarrhoea and 81% for pneumonia. The epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and that of pneumonia overlap, which might be partly because of shared risk factors, such as undernutrition, suboptimum breastfeeding, and zinc deficiency. Rotavirus is the most common cause of vaccine-preventable severe diarrhoea (associated with 28% of cases), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (18·3%) of vaccine-preventable severe pneumonia. Morbidity and mortality from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea are falling, but action is needed globally and at country level to accelerate the reduction.

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    • "Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is an important cause of pneumonia , meningitis and other invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children <5 years of age, especially in developing countries [1] [2] [3]. "
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    • "So far, 75 countries around the world have introduced either of the two RV vaccines through national immunization programmes, including 35 GAVI-eligible countries mostly in the African continent (PATH, 2014). With the effective implementation of these two RV vaccines in both developed and developing countries, the morbidity and mortality rates associated with RV disease have dramatically declined (Fernandes et al., 2014; Msimang et al., 2013; Seheri et al., 2012; Vesikari et al., 2013; Walker et al., 2013). In Africa, data from South Africa showed a significant delay in the RV season by up to 8 weeks when comparing pre-and post-vaccination parameters in some settings (Seheri et al., 2012). "
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    • "Pneumonia and diarrhea, continue to be the leading causes of preventable child deaths globally, with 0 Á 7 and 1 Á 3 million deaths attributed to diarrhea and pneumonia respectively in children aged under 5 years [Walker et al., 2013]. Half of these deaths in young children are concentrated in five countries including Pakistan [Bhutta et al., 2013]. "
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