Early life events predispose the onset of childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common digestive conditions characterized by chronic or recurrent symptoms in the absence of a clearly recognized gastrointestinal etiology. The biopsychosocial model, the most accepted concept explaining chronic pain conditions, proposes that the interplay of multiple factors such as genetic susceptibility, early life experiences, sociocultural issues, and coping mechanisms affect children at different stages of their lives leading to the development of different pain phenotypes and pain behaviors. Early life events including gastrointestinal inflammation, trauma, and stress may result in maladaptive responses that could lead to the development of chronic pain conditions such as FGIDs. AIMS: In this review, we discuss novel findings from studies regarding the long-term effect of early life events and their relationship with childhood chronic abdominal pain and FGIDs. METHODS: A bibliographic search of the PubMed database was conducted for articles published over the last 20 years using the keywords: "Functional gastrointestinal disorders", "chronic abdominal pain", "chronic pain", "gastrointestinal inflammation", and "early life events". Forty-three articles were chosen for review. RESULTS: Based on the current evidence, events that take place early in life predispose children to the development of chronic abdominal pain and FGIDs. Conditions that have been studied include cow's milk protein hypersensitivity, pyloric stenosis, gastrointestinal infections, and Henoch-Schonlein purpura, among others. CONCLUSIONS: Early events may play an important role in the complex pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal conditions. Timely intervention may have a critical impact on the prevention of this group of chronic incapacitating conditions.
- SourceAvailable from: Miranda A L Van Tilburg[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of an infant/toddler functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) as reported by parents in a representative community sample. Mothers (n = 320) of children aged 0-3 years old were recruited in the US and completed a questionnaire about their child's and their own gastrointestinal symptoms. By Rome criteria, 27% of infants/toddlers qualified for FGIDs. Infant regurgitation was the most common disorder in infants and functional constipation in toddlers. No age, sex, or race differences were found in FGID diagnoses. Compared with those who did not meet Rome criteria, toddlers with FGID had lower quality of life (M = 80.1 vs M = 90.3, P < .001), increased medical visits (M = 0.38 vs 0.14; P < .05), mental health visits (M = 0.29 vs 0.06; P < .05), and hospital stays (M = 0.35 vs 0.06; P < .01). A child was more likely to suffer from hard stools if the parent also reported hard stools (P = .02), but similar association was not found with loose stools. FGIDs are common in infants and toddlers and can be identified in the general population. They do not vary with sex and race. Quality of life is reduced in those with FGIDs. More research is needed into these largely neglected conditions as it may improve the lives of a significant number of young children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of Pediatrics 12/2014; 166(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.11.039 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adverse early life events are key factors for development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Urinary tract infection (UTI) is associated with chronic pelvic pain in adults, a finding that has been recapitulated in murine models, but the relation between UTI and chronic pelvic and abdominal pain has not been studied in children. We hypothesized that UTI in infancy increases the risk of FGIDs and chronic abdominal pain (CAP) in childhood. The present study included children, ages 4 to 18 years, with a single UTI in the first year of life and their siblings with no history of UTI. Parents completed the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-III) by telephone. Children meeting QPGS-III criteria for FGIDs but with pain less than once weekly were considered to have CAP. A total of 57 patients with UTI and 58 sibling controls were identified. Mean age at UTI was 4.8 months, and mean time since UTI was 9.3 years. At the time of survey, mean age of patients was 9.7 years (5-16 years, 40% boys) and that of controls was 9.6 years (range 4-17 years, 57% boys). FGIDs were diagnosed in 6 of 57 (11%) patients, and 1 of 58 (2%) controls (P = 0.06). CAP was identified in 10 of 57 (18%) patients and 2 of 58 (3%) controls (P = 0.02). Predominant sex (female), infecting organism (E coli), and treatment (third-generation cephalosporin) were similar in patients with UTI with and without CAP. We show for the first time that UTI is associated with CAP in childhood. We speculate that pelvic organ sensory convergence explains our findings.Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 02/2015; 60(2):214-6. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000599 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic abdominal pain is one of the most common clinical syndromes encountered in day to day clinical paediatric practice. Although common, its definition is confusing, predisposing factors are poorly understood and the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clear. The prevailing viewpoint in the pathogenesis involves the inter-relationship between changes in hypersensitivity and altered motility, to which several risk factors have been linked. Making a diagnosis of functional abdominal pain can be a challenge, as it is unclear which further diagnostic tests are necessary to exclude an organic cause. Moreover, large, well-performed, high-quality clinical trials for effective agents are lacking, which undermines evidence-based treatment. This Review summarizes current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and diagnostic work-up of functional abdominal pain. Finally, management options for children with functional abdominal pain are discussed including medications, dietary interventions, probiotics and psychological and complementary therapies, to improve understanding and to maximize the quality of care for children with this condition.Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 02/2015; 12(3). DOI:10.1038/nrgastro.2015.21 · 10.81 Impact Factor