Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

Section of Endocrinology, Boston University School of Medicine, Room M-1016, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
Journal of Thyroid Research 03/2013; 2013:124538. DOI: 10.1155/2013/124538
Source: PubMed


Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing.

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    • "The relationship between thyroid hormones and wound healing is also well known (Natori et al., 1999; Ekmektzoglouw et al., 2006; Safer et al., 2013). Thyroid hormones stimulate epidermal proliferation, which is a stage of the wound healing process; therefore, abnormal serum thyroid hormone, as observed in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, also affect wound healing (Safer et al., 2013). There are no reports that investigate the influence of endocrine dysfunction on the development of snakebite symptoms, but some that refer to the effect of some snake venoms on the pituitary gland (Wolff, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bothrops leucurus venom causes significant local effects, such as necrosis, pain, hemorrhage and edema. These effects are important because of their high frequency and severity. The treatment of these local effects is not simple because of their quick triggering and a variety of components that induce these effects. Myonecrosis, dermonecrosis and edema are primarily caused by the action of hemorrhagins and myotoxins. A number of investigators have demonstrated the influence of thyroid hormones on inflammatory processes, particularly on wound healing. We investigated the edematogenic, hemorrhagic and necrotic activity of the B. leucurus venom in the hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and euthyroid of rats. The CK (creatine kinase) plasma level decreased in the animals in a hypothyroid state. The hypothyroid condition also significantly reduced the hemorrhagic and dermonecrotic area compared to the euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism states. It also mitigated the rat paw edema compared to that found in the euthyroid and hyperthyroid animals. The hyperthyroid animals showed no significant differences in the three treatments compared to the euthyroid animals.Our results suggest that the triggering of local effects induced by envenomation by Bothropsleucurus is attenuated in hypothyroid animals, possibly by the effect of hypothyroidism on the immune system and blood flow. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Toxicon 05/2015; 102. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.05.009 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    • "This process involves proliferation of keratinocytes at the wound edges and their migration, as well as the formation of a granulation tissue that will originate a mature dermal tissue [17]. The thyroid hormones can also play a role in wound healing [18]. Topical treatment with thyroid hormone accelerates wound healing in rodents [19], [20], and it could also be effective in humans [21]–[23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Both clinical and experimental observations show that the skin is affected by the thyroidal status. In hypothyroid patients the epidermis is thin and alopecia is common, indicating that thyroidal status might influence not only skin proliferation but also hair growth. We demonstrate here that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mediate these effects of the thyroid hormones on the skin. Mice lacking TRα1 and TRβ (the main thyroid hormone binding isoforms) display impaired hair cycling associated to a decrease in follicular hair cell proliferation. This was also observed in hypothyroid mice, indicating the important role of the hormone-bound receptors in hair growth. In contrast, the individual deletion of either TRα1 or TRβ did not impair hair cycling, revealing an overlapping or compensatory role of the receptors in follicular cell proliferation. In support of the role of the receptors in hair growth, TRα1/TRβ-deficient mice developed alopecia after serial depilation. These mice also presented a wound-healing defect, with retarded re-epithelialization and wound gaping, associated to impaired keratinocyte proliferation. These results reinforce the idea that the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors play an important role on skin homeostasis and suggest that they could be targets for the treatment of cutaneous pathologies.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108137. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108137 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Thyroid disease is associated with changes in the skin, which may sometimes be the first clinical sign. A variety of cutaneous findings may present in the setting of either a hyperthyroid or hypothyroid state. There may be evidence of the effect of altered concentrations of thyroxine on the skin, with changes in texture and hair growth. Associated increases in thyroid stimulating hormone concentration may lead to pretibial myxedema. Hair follicles are particularly sensitive to concentrations of thyroid gland derived hormones. The cells of the hair matrix, due to their high degree of metabolic activity, are most profoundly influenced by the deficiency or excess of thyroid derived hormones. There is convincing evidence of a significant association between thyroid autoimmunity and skin disorders. Most commonly reported cutaneous disorders related with thyroid disease are alopecia areata and vitiligo. This review constitutes a summary and update of the cutaneous manifestation of thyroid disease. Keywords: Hypothyroidism; Hyperthyroidism; Thyroid autoimmunity; Skin disease; Thyroid dermopathy