Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

Section of Endocrinology, Boston University School of Medicine, Room M-1016, 715 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
Journal of thyroid research 03/2013; 2013:124538. DOI: 10.1155/2013/124538
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing.

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    ABSTRACT: Both clinical and experimental observations show that the skin is affected by the thyroidal status. In hypothyroid patients the epidermis is thin and alopecia is common, indicating that thyroidal status might influence not only skin proliferation but also hair growth. We demonstrate here that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mediate these effects of the thyroid hormones on the skin. Mice lacking TRα1 and TRβ (the main thyroid hormone binding isoforms) display impaired hair cycling associated to a decrease in follicular hair cell proliferation. This was also observed in hypothyroid mice, indicating the important role of the hormone-bound receptors in hair growth. In contrast, the individual deletion of either TRα1 or TRβ did not impair hair cycling, revealing an overlapping or compensatory role of the receptors in follicular cell proliferation. In support of the role of the receptors in hair growth, TRα1/TRβ-deficient mice developed alopecia after serial depilation. These mice also presented a wound-healing defect, with retarded re-epithelialization and wound gaping, associated to impaired keratinocyte proliferation. These results reinforce the idea that the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors play an important role on skin homeostasis and suggest that they could be targets for the treatment of cutaneous pathologies.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108137. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108137 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Thyroid disease is associated with changes in the skin, which may sometimes be the first clinical sign. A variety of cutaneous findings may present in the setting of either a hyperthyroid or hypothyroid state. There may be evidence of the effect of altered concentrations of thyroxine on the skin, with changes in texture and hair growth. Associated increases in thyroid stimulating hormone concentration may lead to pretibial myxedema. Hair follicles are particularly sensitive to concentrations of thyroid gland derived hormones. The cells of the hair matrix, due to their high degree of metabolic activity, are most profoundly influenced by the deficiency or excess of thyroid derived hormones. There is convincing evidence of a significant association between thyroid autoimmunity and skin disorders. Most commonly reported cutaneous disorders related with thyroid disease are alopecia areata and vitiligo. This review constitutes a summary and update of the cutaneous manifestation of thyroid disease. Keywords: Hypothyroidism; Hyperthyroidism; Thyroid autoimmunity; Skin disease; Thyroid dermopathy

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