Endoscopic Therapy of Neoplasia Related to Barrett's Esophagus and Endoscopic Palliation of Esophageal Cancer.

Section of Endoscopic Oncology, Gastrointestinal Tumor Program, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA. .
Cancer control: journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center (Impact Factor: 3.5). 04/2013; 20(2):117-29.
Source: PubMed


Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the most important identifiable risk factor for the progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma.
This article reviews the current endoscopic therapies for BE with high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancer and briefly discusses the endoscopic palliation of advanced esophageal cancer.
The diagnosis of low-grade or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) is based on several cytologic criteria that suggest neoplastic transformation of the columnar epithelium. HGD and carcinoma in situ are regarded as equivalent. The presence of dysplasia, particularly HGD, is also a risk factor for synchronous and metachronous adenocarcinoma. Dysplasia is a marker of adenocarcinoma and also has been shown to be the preinvasive lesion. Esophagectomy has been the conventional treatment for T1 esophageal cancer and, although debated, is an appropriate option in some patients with HGD due to the presence of occult cancer in over one-third of patients.
Endoscopic ablative modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation) and endoscopic resection techniques (eg, endoscopic mucosal resection) have demonstrated promising results. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy makes endoscopic treatment an attractive potential option.

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