Frequent Emergency Department Use Among Released Prisoners With Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Characterization Including a Novel Multimorbidity Index

Department of Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, AIDS Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT
Academic Emergency Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.01). 04/2013; 20(1):79-88. DOI: 10.1111/acem.12054
Source: PubMed


The objective was to characterize the medical, social, and psychiatric correlates of frequent emergency department (ED) use among released prisoners with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Data on all ED visits by 151 released prisoners with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were prospectively collected for 12 months. Correlates of frequent ED use, defined as having two or more ED visits postrelease, were described using univariate and multivariate models and generated medical, psychiatric, and social multimorbidity indices.
Forty-four (29%) of the 151 participants were defined as frequent ED users, accounting for 81% of the 227 ED visits. Frequent ED users were more likely than infrequent or nonusers to be female; have chronic medical illnesses that included seizures, asthma, and migraines; and have worse physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In multivariate Poisson regression models, frequent ED use was associated with lower physical HRQoL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.95, p = 0.02) and having not had prerelease discharge planning (OR = 3.16, p = 0.04). Frequent ED use was positively correlated with increasing psychiatric multimorbidity index values.
Among released prisoners with HIV, frequent ED use is driven primarily by extensive comorbid medical and psychiatric illness. Frequent ED users were also less likely to have received prerelease discharge planning, suggesting missed opportunities for seamless linkages to care.

Download full-text


Available from: Frederick Altice, Nov 02, 2014
1 Follower
28 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Substance use disorders (SUDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are pervasive epidemics that synergize, resulting in negative outcomes for HIV-infected people who use drugs (PWUDs). The expanding epidemiology of substance use demands a parallel evolution of the HIV specialist - beyond HIV to diagnosis and management of comorbid SUDs. The purpose of this paper is to describe healthcare disparities for HIV-infected PWUDs along each point of a continuum of care, and to suggest evidence-based strategies for overcoming these healthcare disparities. Despite extensive dedicated resources and availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the United States, PWUDs continue to experience delayed HIV diagnosis, reduced entry into and retention in HIV care, delayed initiation of ART, and inferior HIV treatment outcomes. Overcoming these healthcare disparities requires integrated packages of clinical, pharmacological, behavioral, and social services, delivered in ways that are cost-effective and convenient and include, at a minimum, screening for and treatment of underlying SUDs. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: [email protected] /* */
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2013; 57(9). DOI:10.1093/cid/cit427 · 8.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management in correctional settings is logistically feasible, but HIV-related outcomes before release have not been recently systematically examined. OBJECTIVE To evaluate HIV treatment outcomes throughout incarceration, including jail and prison. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study of longitudinally linked demographic, pharmacy, and laboratory data on 882 prisoners within the Connecticut Department of Correction (2005-2012) with confirmed HIV infection, who were continually incarcerated 90 days or more, had at least 2 HIV-1 RNA and CD4 lymphocyte measurements, and were prescribed antiretroviral therapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Three electronic databases (correctional, laboratory, and pharmacy) were integrated to assess HIV viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA levels, <400 copies/mL) on intake and release. Secondary outcomes were mean change in log-transformed HIV-1 RNA levels and mean change in CD4 lymphocyte count during incarceration. Demographic characteristics, prescribed pharmacotherapies, receipt of directly observed therapy, and duration of incarceration were analyzed as possible explanatory variables for HIV viral suppression in logistic regression models. RESULTS Among 882 HIV-infected prisoners with 1185 incarceration periods, mean HIV-1 RNA level decreased by 1.1 log10 and CD4 lymphocyte count increased by 98 cells/µL over time, with a higher proportion achieving viral suppression by release compared with entry (70.0% vs 29.8%; P < .001); 36.9% of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens were changed during incarceration. After adjusting for baseline HIV-1 RNA level, prerelease viral suppression correlated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26-2.59) and psychiatric disorder severity below the sample median (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.12-1.99), but not race/ethnicity, incarceration duration, ART regimen or dosing strategy, or directly observed therapy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Though just one-third of HIV-infected prisoners receiving ART entered correctional facilities with viral suppression, HIV treatment was optimized during incarceration, resulting in the majority achieving viral suppression by release. Treatment for HIV within prison is facilitated by a highly structured environment and, when combined with simple well-tolerated ART regimens, can result in viral suppression during incarceration. In the absence of important and effective community-based resources, incarceration can be an opportunity of last resort to initiate continuous ART for individual health and, following the "treatment as prevention" paradigm, potentially reduce the likelihood of HIV transmission to others after release if continuity of HIV care is sustained.
    JAMA Internal Medicine 03/2014; 174(5). DOI:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.601 · 13.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Release from short-term jail detention is highly destabilizing, associated with relapse to substance use, recidivism, and disrupted health care continuity. Little is known about emergency department (ED) use, potentially a surrogate for medical, psychiatric, or social instability, by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) leaving jails. All ED visits were reviewed from medical records for a cohort of 109 PLHWA in the year following release from county jail in Connecticut, between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Primary outcomes were frequency and timing of ED visits, modeled using multivariate negative binomial regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. Demographic, substance use, and psychiatric disorder severity factors were evaluated as potential covariates. Overall, 71 (65.1 %) of the 109 participants made 300 unique ED visits (2.75 visits/person-year) in the year following jail-release. Frequency of ED use was positively associated with female sex (incidence rate ratios, IRR 2.40 [1.36-4.35]), homelessness (IRR 2.22 [1.15-4.41]), and recent substance use (IRR 2.47 [1.33-4.64]), and inversely associated with lifetime drug severity (IRR 0.01 [0-0.10]), and being retained in HIV primary care (IRR 0.80 [0.65-0.99]). Those in late or sustained HIV care used the ED sooner than those not retained in HIV primary care (median for late retention 16.3 days, median for sustained retention 24.9 days, median for no retention not reached at 12 months, p value 0.004). Using multivariate modeling, those who used the ED earliest upon release were more likely to be homeless (HR 1.98 [1.02-3.84]), to be retained in HIV care (HR 1.30 [1.04-1.61]), and to have recently used drugs (HR 2.51 [1.30-4.87]), yet had a low lifetime drug severity (HR 0.01 [0.00-0.14]). Among PLWHA released from jail, frequency of ED use is high, often soon after release, and is associated with social and drug-related destabilizing factors. Future interventions for this specific population should focus on addressing these resource gaps, ensuring housing, and establishing immediate linkage to HIV primary care after release from jail.
    Journal of Urban Health 10/2014; 92(1). DOI:10.1007/s11524-014-9905-4 · 1.90 Impact Factor
Show more