Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Gross Motor Skills in Children With Cerebral Palsy
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES:To determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) and its subtypes (oral phase, pharyngeal phase, saliva control), and their relationship to gross motor functional skills in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was hypothesized that OPD would be present across all gross motor severity levels, and children with more severe gross motor function would have increased prevalence and severity of OPD.METHODS:Children with a confirmed diagnosis of CP, 18 to 36 months corrected age, born in Queensland between 2006 and 2009, participated. Children with neurodegenerative conditions were excluded. This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Children were assessed by using 2 direct OPD measures (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment; Dysphagia Disorders Survey), and observations of signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment and impaired saliva control. Gross motor skills were described by using the Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System, and motor type/ distribution.RESULTS:OPD was prevalent in 85% of children with CP, and there was a stepwise relationship between OPD and GMFCS level. There was a significant increase in odds of having OPD, or a subtype, for children who were nonambulant (GMFCS V) compared with those who were ambulant (GMFCS I) (odds ratio = 17.9, P = .036).CONCLUSIONS:OPD was present across all levels of gross motor severity using direct assessments. This highlights the need for proactive screening of all young children with CP, even those with mild impairments, to improve growth and nutritional outcomes and respiratory health.
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ABSTRACT: AimThe aim of the study was to determine the best measure to discriminate between those with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) and those without OPD, among young children with cerebral palsy (CP).Method We carried out a cross-sectional population-based study involving 130 children with CP aged between 18 months and 36 months (mean 27.4mo; 81 males, 49 females) classified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) as level I (n=57), II (n=15), III (n=23), IV (n=12), or V (n=23). Forty children with CP (mean 28.5mo; 21 males,19 females, eight for each GMFCS level) were included in the reproducibility sub-study, and 40 children with typical development (mean 26.2mo; 18 males, 22 females) were included in the validity sub-study. OPD was assessed using the Dysphagia Disorders Survey (DDS), Pre-Speech Assessment Scale (PSAS), and Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment (SOMA). We analysed reproducibility using inter- and intrarater agreement (percentage) and reliability (kappa values and intraclass correlation coefficients). Construct validity was assessed as concordance between measures (SOMA, DDS, and PSAS). In the absence of a criterion standard measure for OPD, prevalence was estimated using latent class variable analysis. Data from the children with typical development were used to propose modified OPD cut-points for discriminative validity.ResultsAll measures had strong agreement (>85%) for inter- and intrarater reliability. The SOMA had the best specificity (100.0%), but lacked sensitivity (53.0%), whereas the DDS and PSAS had high sensitivity (each 100.0%) but lacked specificity (47.1% and 70.6% respectively). OPD prevalence when calculated using the web-based estimation was 65.4%, which was similar to the estimate from the modified cut-points.InterpretationUsing the sample of children with typical development and modified cut-points, OPD prevalence was lower than estimates with standard scoring. We propose using these modified cut-points when administering the DDS, PSAS or SOMA in young children with CP.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 11/2014; 57(4). DOI:10.1111/dmcn.12616 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To explore factors associated with communication impairments in children with cerebral palsy. Data were obtained on children born between 1999 and 2008 from the Quebec Cerebral Palsy Registry (REPACQ). Out of 535 children with cerebral palsy, 297 were identified to have communication impairments (55.5%). Of these, 96 were unable to communicate verbally (32.3%), 195 had some verbal communication (65.7%), and 6 were unspecified (2.0%). These children were significantly more likely to have a more severe motor deficit (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V and Manual Ability Classification System levels IV and V), to have spastic quadriplegia or dyskinetic subtypes of cerebral palsy, and gray matter injury on neuroimaging. Communication impairment is a common comorbidity in cerebral palsy and is associated with a more severe motor deficit, spastic quadriplegic or dyskinetic subtype of cerebral palsy, and gray matter injury on neuroimaging. This information allows clinicians to better predict and manage communication impairment in children with cerebral palsy.Journal of Child Neurology 07/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1177/0883073814538497 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Verificar o tempo de preparo e de trânsito oral da deglutição de crianças com paralisia cerebral e relacioná-lo ao grau de severidade da disfagia e ao nível motor, de acordo com o Gross Motor Function Classification System. MÉTODOS: Participaram desta pesquisa 50 crianças com paralisia cerebral, média de idade de 3,6 anos, sendo dez crianças de cada nível motor. A avaliação fonoaudiológica clínica da deglutição consistiu na oferta de alimentos nas consistências "líquido fino" (água) e "pastoso homogêneo" (iogurte tipo petit suisse). Foi mensurado o tempo de preparo e de trânsito oral e realizado o diagnóstico da função de deglutição, classificando-a em normal, disfagia leve, moderada, ou grave. RESULTADOS: A média do tempo de deglutição foi de 1,33 segundos para a consistência líquida e de 3,33 segundos para a consistência pastosa. Quanto maior o nível motor do grupo de crianças, maior o tempo de deglutição para a consistência líquida. Encontrada diferença significativa entre os grupos para as duas consistências, com aumento progressivo do tempo de deglutição quanto maior o comprometimento da função de deglutição. CONCLUSÃO: O tempo de trânsito oral em crianças com paralisia cerebral mostrou-se aumentado e pôde representar a gravidade da disfagia apresentada, já que esse aumento ocorreu conforme maior o comprometimento da função de deglutição. Quanto maior o comprometimento motor global apresentado, maior o tempo de trânsito oral.12/2012; 18(3):155-161. DOI:10.1590/S2317-64312013000300004