Oropharyngeal Dysphagia and Gross Motor Skills in Children With Cerebral Palsy.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES:To determine the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) and its subtypes (oral phase, pharyngeal phase, saliva control), and their relationship to gross motor functional skills in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). It was hypothesized that OPD would be present across all gross motor severity levels, and children with more severe gross motor function would have increased prevalence and severity of OPD.METHODS:Children with a confirmed diagnosis of CP, 18 to 36 months corrected age, born in Queensland between 2006 and 2009, participated. Children with neurodegenerative conditions were excluded. This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Children were assessed by using 2 direct OPD measures (Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment; Dysphagia Disorders Survey), and observations of signs suggestive of pharyngeal phase impairment and impaired saliva control. Gross motor skills were described by using the Gross Motor Function Measure, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System, and motor type/ distribution.RESULTS:OPD was prevalent in 85% of children with CP, and there was a stepwise relationship between OPD and GMFCS level. There was a significant increase in odds of having OPD, or a subtype, for children who were nonambulant (GMFCS V) compared with those who were ambulant (GMFCS I) (odds ratio = 17.9, P = .036).CONCLUSIONS:OPD was present across all levels of gross motor severity using direct assessments. This highlights the need for proactive screening of all young children with CP, even those with mild impairments, to improve growth and nutritional outcomes and respiratory health.
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ABSTRACT: Swallowing and feeding disorder (dysphagia) have high incidence and prevalence in children and adults with developmental disability. Standardized screening and clinical assessments are needed to identify and describe the disorder. The aim of this study was to describe the psychometric properties of the Dysphagia Disorder Survey (DDS), a screening and clinical assessment of swallowing and feeding function for eating and drinking developed specifically for this population. The statistical analysis was performed on a sample of 654 individuals (age range 8–82) with intellectual and developmental disability living in two residential settings in the United States that served somewhat different populations. The two samples had similar factor structures. Internal consistency of the DDS and subscales was confirmed using Chronbach's coefficient alpha. The DDS demonstrated convergent validity when compared to judgments of swallowing and feeding disorder severity made by clinical swallowing specialists. Discriminative validity for severity of disorder was tested by comparing the two samples. The results of the study suggest that the DDS is a reliable and valid test for identifying and describing swallowing and feeding disorder in children and adults with developmental disability.Research in developmental disabilities 05/2014; · 4.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk for aspiration with oral feeding with potential pulmonary consequences, and commonly have reduced nutrition/hydration status and prolonged stressful meal times. There is considerable variability in the nature and severity of swallowing problems in these children whose needs change over time. Children with generalized severe motor impairment (for example, spastic quadriplegia) are likely to experience greater swallowing deficits than those with diplegia, but oropharyngeal dysphagia is prevalent even in children with mild CP. This review is focused on dysphagia in children with CP: types of deficits, clinical and instrumental evaluation, management decision making and evidence of effectiveness of interventions.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2013; · 2.95 Impact Factor