Article

Combined targeting of AKT and mTOR using MK-2206 and RAD001 is synergistic in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma

Department of Hepatobiliary and Transplant Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.01). 11/2013; 133(9). DOI: 10.1002/ijc.28214
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare, but devastating disease arising from the epithelium of intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. There are neither effective systemic therapies nor satisfying treatment options for inoperable CCA. Histopathological and biochemical studies of CCA show frequent dysregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 and the impact of AKT signaling following mTOR inhibition in the treatment of CCA. RAD001 significantly inhibits proliferation of CCA cell lines, however, a concentration-dependent and isoform specific feedback activation of the three AKT isoforms (AKT1, AKT2, AKT3) was observed after mTOR inhibition. Since activation of AKT might limit the RAD001-mediated anti-tumor effect, the efficacy of combined mTOR and AKT inhibition was investigated using the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206. Our results show that inhibition of AKT potentiates the efficacy of mTOR inhibition both in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model in vivo. Mechanistically, the anti-proliferative effect of the pan-AKT inhibitor MK2206 in the CCA cell line TFK-1 was due to inhibition of AKT1 and AKT2, because knockdown of either AKT1 or AKT2, but not AKT3, showed a synergistic reduction of cell proliferation in combination with mTOR treatment. Finally, by using an AKT isoform specific in vitro kinase assay, enzymatic activity of each of the three AKT isoforms was detected in all tissue samples from CCA patients, analyzed. In summary, our preclinical data suggest that combined targeting of mTOR and AKT using RAD001 and MK-2206 might be a new, effective strategy for the treatment of CCA. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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    ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive disease with limited effective treatment options. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway represents an attractive therapeutic target due to its frequent dysregulation in CCA. MK2206, an allosteric Akt inhibitor, has been shown to reduce cellular proliferation in other cancers. We hypothesized that MK2206 mediated inhibition of Akt would impact CCA cellular viability. Post treatment with MK2206 (0-2 μM), cellular viability was assessed in two human CCA cell lines-CCLP-1 and SG231-using an MTT assay. Lysates from the MK2206 treated CCA cells were then examined for apoptotic marker expression levels using Western blot analysis. Additionally, the effect on cellular proliferation of MK2206 treatment on survivin depleted cells was determined. CCLP-1 and SG231 viability was significantly reduced at MK2206 concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 μM by approximately 44%, 53%, and 64% (CCLP-1; p = 0.01) and 32%, 32%, and 42% (SG231; p < 0.00005) respectively. Western analysis revealed a decrease in AKT(Ser473), while AKT(Thr308) expression was unchanged. In addition, cleaved PARP as well as survivin expression increased while pro-caspase 3 and 9 levels decreased with treatment. Depletion of survivin in CCLP-1 cells resulted in apoptosis as evidenced by increased cleaved PARP. In addition, survivin siRNA further enhanced the antitumor activity of MK2206. This study demonstrates that by blocking phosphorylation of Akt at serine473, CCA cellular growth is reduced. The growth suppression appears to be mediated via apoptosis. Importantly, combination of survivin siRNA transfection and MK2206 treatment significantly decreased cell viability.
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