The DIAMIND study: Postpartum SMS reminders to women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus to test for type 2 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial-Study protocol

Australian Research Centre for Health of Women and Babies, Robinson Institute, The University of Adelaide, 72 King William Road North, Adelaide, SA 5006, Australia. .
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (Impact Factor: 2.19). 04/2013; 13(1):92. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-92
Source: PubMed


Postpartum follow up of women who have been found to have gestational diabetes during pregnancy is essential because of the strong association of gestational diabetes with subsequent type 2 diabetes. Postal reminders have been shown to increase significantly attendance for oral glucose tolerance testing postpartum. It is possible that a short message service (text) reminder system may also be effective. This trial aims to assess whether a text message reminder system for women who have experienced gestational diabetes in their index pregnancy will increase attendance for oral glucose tolerance testing within six months after birth.
Design: Single centre (Women's and Children's Hospital, South Australia), parallel group randomised controlled trial.Inclusion criteria: Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes in their index pregnancy (oral glucose tolerance test with fasting glucose ≥ 5.5 mmol/L and/or two hour glucose ≥ 7.8 mmol/L), with access to a mobile phone, whose capillary blood glucose profile measurements prior to postnatal discharge are all normal (fasting glucose < 6.0 mmol/L, postprandial glucoses < 8.0 mmol/L).Exclusion criteria: Pregestational diabetes mellitus, triplet/higher order multiple birth or stillbirth in the index pregnancy, requirement for interpreter.Trial entry and randomisation: Allocation to intervention will be undertaken using a telephone randomisation service (computer-generated random number sequence generation, with balanced variable blocks, and stratification by insulin requirement).Study groups: Women in the intervention group will receive a text reminder to attend for an oral glucose tolerance test at 6 weeks postpartum, with further reminders at 3 months and 6 months if they do not respond to indicate test completion. Women in the control group will receive a single text message reminder at 6 months postpartum.Blinding: Baseline data collection will be undertaken blinded. Blinding of participants and blinded collection of primary outcome data will not be possible for this study.Primary study outcome: Attendance for the oral glucose tolerance test within 6 months postpartum.Sample size: 276 subjects will be required to show an 18% absolute increase in the rate of attendance (α=0.05 two tailed, β=80%, 5% loss to follow up) from 37% to 55% in the intervention group.
Given the heightened risk of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in women who have had gestational diabetes, ensuring the highest possible rate of attendance for postpartum glucose tolerance testing, so that early diagnosis and intervention can occur, is important. A text message reminder system may prove to be an effective method for achieving improved attendance for such testing. This randomised controlled trial will assess whether such a system will increase rates of attendance for postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing in women who have experienced gestational diabetes.
Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12612000621819.

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    • "This is a missed opportunity in a high-risk population to timely detect glucose intolerance and start lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay the development of glucose intolerance and diabetes [39]. Other systems to improve early postpartum diabetes screening among women with GDM such as an electronic system to trigger reminder calls or postpartum SMS reminders might be helpful tools [40, 41]. In a Southern Italian cohort of women with GDM, verbal and written counseling on the follow-up significantly increased the adherence rate [42]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim. Our aim was to evaluate the uptake of our current screening strategy postpartum and the risk factors for glucose intolerance in women with a recent history of gestational diabetes (GDM). Methods. Retrospective analysis of files of women with a recent history of GDM diagnosed with the Carpenter and Coustan criteria from 01-01-2010 till 31-12-2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Results. Of all 231 women with a recent history of GDM, 21.4% (46) did not attend the scheduled postpartum OGTT. Of the women tested, 39.1% (66) had glucose intolerance and 5.3% (9) had diabetes. These women were more often overweight (39.7% versus 25.3%, P = 0.009), were more often treated with basal-bolus insulin injections (52.0% versus 17.4%, P = 0.032), and had a lower beta-cell function and lower insulin sensitivity, remaining significant after adjustment for age, BMI, and ethnicity (insulin secretion sensitivity index-2 (ISSI-2) in pregnancy 1.5 ± 0.5 versus 1.7 ± 0.4, P = 0.029; ISSI-2 postpartum 1.5 (1.2-1.9) versus 2.2 (1.8-2.6), P = 0.020; Matsuda index postpartum 3.8 (2.6-6.2) versus 6.0 (4.3-8.8), P = 0.021). Conclusion. Glucose intolerance is frequent in early postpartum and these women have a lower beta-cell function and lower insulin sensitivity. One fifth of women did not attend the scheduled OGTT postpartum.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 08/2014; 2014:727652. DOI:10.1155/2014/727652 · 1.95 Impact Factor
    • "Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major health problem during pregnancy, with many adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes (Anderson et al. 2005). GDM complicates up to 7% of pregnancies (ADA 2011) and has a strong association with development of metabolic syndrome and overt type 2 diabetes postpartum (Puhkala et al. 2013; Heatley et al. 2013). Recently, autoimmune antibody against zinc transporter 8 was suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of GDM (Dereke et al. 2012). "
    • "For women with GDM whose sugars are normal after delivery an OGTT with 75 g of glucose can be planned after 6 weeks of delivery to see if the sugars have normalized.[29] Some studies have even used short message service (text) system for these women to remind them for testing for type 2DM.[30] "
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    ABSTRACT: The peripartum control of diabetes is very important for the well-being of the newborn as higher incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia is seen if maternal hyperglycemia happens during this period. Type of diabetes (type 1, type 2 or gestational diabetes) also has an effect on the glucose concentration during intrapartum period. During the latent phase of labor, the metabolic demands are stable but during active labor there is increased metabolic demand and decreased insulin requirement. After delivery once the placenta is extracted, insulin resistance rapidly comes down and in patients with pre-gestational diabetes there will be a sudden drop in insulin requirement and the insulin may not be required in women with gestational diabetes, but they just need close monitoring. During breast-feeding blood glucose levels fall because of high metabolic demand and women need to take extra calories to maintain the levels and more vigilance especially in type 1 and type 2 diabetic mothers is required. The protocols used for the management of peripartum management of diabetes mostly rely on glucose and insulin infusion to maintain maternal blood sugars between 70 and 110 mg/dl. The data is mostly from retrospective studies and few randomized control trials done mainly in type 1 diabetes patients. The review summarizes guidelines, which are used for peripartum management of blood glucose.
    10/2013; 17(Suppl1):S72-S76. DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.119510
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