Antimicrobials of plant origin against multi-drug resistant bacteria including the TB bacterium and economics of plant-drugs—Introspection

Indian journal of traditional knowledge (Impact Factor: 0.41). 08/2012; 11(2):225-233.


An overview on work published on antimicrobial activity of plants indicated that very limited work is reported on antimicrobial activities against multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria, especially the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. But considerable work has been done with the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Active principles from the tea tree oil plant, as well as the berberine found in many plants were reported to be effective against MRSA. For the control of many MDR pathogenic bacteria including M. tuberculosis, a systematic screening of plants would be the step towards drug-development from plants that would be economically viable too in the medicinal plant trade. In developing and developed countries phytodrugs with several commercial formulations are amply available, those are economical enough. A discussion on the economics of trade on medicinal plants is done that clarifies that raw products for healthcare are almost universally popular. It is discussed that crude plant extracts as antimicrobials are preferable, since resistance in pathogens would not be easy, for an array of compounds; and drug development for MDR-TB is need of the day.

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Available from: Rabindra N Padhy, May 14, 2014
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    • "The same is true in vivo when the phytocompounds are accessorized with regular chemotherapy, since phytochemicals in crude extracts remain as unbreakable barriers to microbial pathogens. It would seem that accumulated ethnomedicinal reports of different countries are idealistic without any scientific verification, but should form the basis of further work on drug targeting against MDR pathogens, as has been stated in detail elsewhere (Dubey et al., 2012b). Taking recourse to plants for new chemicals, from well-known and lesser-known weeds as antimicrobials would be a prudent alternative, not least because the Streptomyces source of antibiotics is exhausted, but also because a large amount of pure phytochemicals has been serving the health domain holistically. "
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    ABSTRACT: The scientific basis for the use of the common shrub-weed plant Lantana camara L. was investigated by testing leaf extracts for antibacterial activity. Dried leaf powders were extracted using a hot-solvent extraction method with eight polar to non-polar solvents in succession. Crude extracts were tested for antibacterial activity against three multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive bacteria: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE); and five MDR extended-spectrum �-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The MRSA strain was resistant to 16 of 18 antibiotics, while Streptococcus pyogenes and VRE were resistant to 15 of 18 antibiotics. Similarly, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 14 of 16 antibiotics. It was found that plant extracts with petroleum ether and water had the least antibacterial activity. Leaf extracts with dichloromethane and methanol registered the highest antibacterial activity on all bacterial strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of two active leaf extracts, obtained with dichloromethane and methanol were determined. Phytochemical analysis of dichloromethane leaf extracts confirmed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids, but reducing sugars were also absent; and, in the methanolic leaf extract, alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and steroids were present, but glycosides, reducing sugars and tannins were absent. These findings point to the potential of the plant as a probable source of bioactive compounds and provide a scientific basis for its folklore/ethnomedicinal uses for infectious diseases.
    Journal of Herbal Medicine 06/2013; 3(2):65-75. DOI:10.1016/j.hermed.2012.12.002 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    • "The emergence of vancomycin resistant strain (VRSA-vancomycin resistant S. aureus) is of further concern. Today, the management of the camaraderie of MDR strains of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens has become increasingly difficult because of the 毬-lactamase production in Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella, Neisseria, Salmonella, Haemophilus and a few more pathogens [9] , and pandrug resistance to different classes of antibiotics in Gram-negative ones [12] . Meek appreciation of failures in control of MDR strains would be inhuman, which generates the impetus on a systematic global search for new drugs from natural resources like plants [13] [14] . "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial potency of 20 non-edible and/or poisonous plants used by an aborigine tribe (Kandha) of Kalahandi district for infectious diseases.Methods Over a period of 5 months from two hospitals, 10 pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Acinetobacter sp., Citrobacter freundii (C. freundii), Chromobacterium violeceum (C. violeceum), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) and Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) were isolated to pure axenic cultures from clinical samples. Water and ethanolic extracts of leaves and barks were concentrated before monitoring antimicrobial activity by agar-well diffusion method.ResultsAll bacterial strains isolated were multidrug resistant. Ethanolic extract of most plants had effective antimicrobial activity against all the isolated multidrug resistant bacteria. Plants, Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba) and Pterocarpus santalinus (P. santalinus) had antibacterial effect on all used bacteria. Water extract of several plants too had effective antimicrobial activity for all bacteria used. Effective in vitro control of MDR strains of Acinetobacter sp., C. freundii, Proteus sp. and P. aeruginosa, the most potential urinary tract infection causing organisms by plant extracts of all major plant used herein is recorded. MDR C. violaceum isolated from skin lesions was found to be resistant to imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and amoxyclav and was found sensitive to 13 plant extracts.Conclusion Effective in vitro control of MDR strains of Acinetobacter sp., C. freundii, Proteus sp. and P. aeruginosa; enteropathogenic bacteria, E. coli, S. typhi, Klebsiella s p. and V. cholerae were found to be well controlled by all plant extracts used.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 08/2012; 2:S800-807. DOI:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60322-0
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    • "As new MDR strains of pathogens arriving at the community cause hazards in managements of infectious diseases, there are searches for alternate antimicrobial substances to control MDR pathogens from several popular sources including medicinal plants. An overview on work published on antimicrobial activity of plants [11] indicated that a limited work [12] is reported against MDR pathogenic bacteria, especially isolated from clinical samples. Particularly, the poisonous-weed, prickly poppy or Argemone mexicana (A. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To monitor the antipseudomonad activity of the weed Argemone mexicana (A. mexicana), with multidrug strains isolated from clinical samples.Methods Antibiogram of isolated strains were done with disc diffusion method and antipseudomonad activity was monitored with the agar well diffusion method.ResultsTwenty seven strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were isolated from clinical samples from a hospital; among them, 22 were resistant to antibiotics (μ/disc): cefotaxime-30, 16 to amoxyclav-30, 15 to ofloxacin-5, 13 to gentamicin-10, 10 to piperacillin-100/tazobactam-10, 8 to amikacin-30, 7 to gatifloxacin-30, 6 to netilmicin-30, 4 to piperacillin100, 3 to imipenem-10 and 3 strains to nitrofurantoin-300. Each strain was resistant to several antibiotics at specified levels. Of these 27 clinical strains, 15 antibiotic-resistant strains and a antibiotic-sensitive standard strain were used in monitoring antimicrobial activity of leaf-extracts using 3 organic solvents (acetone, methanol and ethanol) and water of the weed, prickly poppy (A. mexicana L.). The methanol-extract had the highest level of antipseudomonad activity both with cold and hot extracts, confirmed by separate Kruskal-Wallis H tests. With the Student's t-test it was ascertained that the hot extraction concentrate yielded promising antipseudomonad activity than the cold extraction with methanol. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of extracts of A. mexicana using acetone, methanol and ethanol as solvents were 10, 8 and 8 mg/mL, respectively; corresponding values of minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 32, 28 and 24 mg/mL for these solvents, respectively.Conclusions This study suggests that A. mexicana leaf can be used as complementary medicine in treating diseases caused by multidrug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 08/2012; DOI:10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60316-5
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