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Antimicrobials of plant origin against multi-drug resistant bacteria including the TB bacterium and economics of plant-drugs—Introspection

Indian journal of traditional knowledge (Impact Factor: 0.49). 08/2012; 11(2):225-233.

ABSTRACT An overview on work published on antimicrobial activity of plants indicated that very limited work is reported on antimicrobial activities against multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria, especially the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. But considerable work has been done with the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Active principles from the tea tree oil plant, as well as the berberine found in many plants were reported to be effective against MRSA. For the control of many MDR pathogenic bacteria including M. tuberculosis, a systematic screening of plants would be the step towards drug-development from plants that would be economically viable too in the medicinal plant trade. In developing and developed countries phytodrugs with several commercial formulations are amply available, those are economical enough. A discussion on the economics of trade on medicinal plants is done that clarifies that raw products for healthcare are almost universally popular. It is discussed that crude plant extracts as antimicrobials are preferable, since resistance in pathogens would not be easy, for an array of compounds; and drug development for MDR-TB is need of the day.

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To locate a plant with suitable phytochemicals for use as antimicrobials for controlling multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria as complementary medicine without host toxicity as monitored through cultured lymphocytes from human cord blood. Methods The methanol crude leaf-extract of the plant Woodfordia fruticosa was subjected to antimicrobial assay in vitro with 9 pathogenic MDR bacteria from clinical samples; bioassay-guided fractionation with 7 non-polar to polar solvents, GC-MS analysis of the n-butanol fraction and monitoring host toxicity of the leaf-extract with in vitro grown lymphocytes from human cord blood were done. Results The leaf-extract of W. fruticosa had controlling capacity over MDR bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of the n-butanol fraction were below 1.89 and 9.63 mg/mL extract, respectively. The GC-MS spectrum of its n-butanol fraction confirmed the presence of 13 peaks of different compounds with retention time (min), 9.11, 9.72, 10.13, 10.78, 12.37, 12.93, 18.16, 21.74, 21.84, 5.96, 12.93, 24.70, and 25.76, respectively; six leading compounds were (with amounts): diethyl phthalate (26.77%); phenol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-(13.37%); (E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene-1-thiol (10.71%); 2,6,10-dodecatrien-1-ol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-,(E,E)- (9.15%); phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)- (3.42%); and, hexadecanoic acid (2.88%). Conclusion The presence of therapeutically potent antimicrobial compounds against MDR bacteria in W. fruticosa was confirmed, and the crude leaf-extract had no host toxicity with human lymphocytes; n-butanol fraction of the extract was the most suitable bio-active fraction. The terpenes isolated were, phenol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-, phenol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-, 2,6-octadien-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-(E)-, 2,6-octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl-, cyclohexanol, and 2-methylene-5-(1-methylethenyl), which were reported to have specifically antimicrobial activity.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To monitor in vitro antibacterial activities of leaf extracts of 30 common and non-common plants used by aborigines of Kalahandi district, Odisha, against 6 clinically isolated multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-positive bacteria of 3 genera, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus. Methods: The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 6 bacterial strains were studied with the disk-diffusion method with 17 antibiotics belonging to 8 classes. Monitored plants have ethno-medicinal uses and several are used as traditional medicines. Antibacterial properties were studied with the agar-well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of plants were determined by the microbroth-dilution method. Results: Ethanolic plant-extracts had the better antibacterial potencies in comparison to their corresponding aqueous extracts. Plants with most conspicuous antibacterial properties in controlling MDR strains of Gram-positive bacteria were aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Ixora coccinea, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Polycythaemia rubra, Pongamia pinnata and Syzygium cumini, Carthamus tinctorius, Cucurbita maxima, Murraya koenigii, Leucas aspera, Plumbago indica and Psidium guajava. Ethanolic extracts of most plants had phytochemicals, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids. Conclusions: These plants could be used further for the isolation of pure compounds to be used as complementary non-microbial antimicrobial medicines.
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