Acta Zoologica (Impact Factor: 1.3). 01/2003; 89:153-168.
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT RESUMEN Con el proposito de estimar en que estrato del bosque tropical ocurre mayor diversidad de especies de insectos formadores de agallas y minadores de hojas, se realizaron muestreos desde marzo de 1997 a mayo de 1998 en dos bosques de la República de Panamá (Parque Natural Metropolitano y Fuerte Sherman). Nuestros resultados indican que en el dosel de ambos bosques existe mayor riqueza de insectos formadores de agallas y minadores de hojas que en el sotobosque, siendo la proporción de especies de estos dos grupos en el dosel y sotobosque de 2:1 respectivamente. El índice alfa de Fisher indica que los dos grupos de insectos son más diversos en el dosel de los dos bosques que en el sotobosque, siendo el dosel del Fuerte Sherman donde ocurre mayor abundancia de algunas morfoespecies. Palabras Claves: diversidad, dosel, insecto formador de agalla, insecto minador de hoja, Panamá, riqueza de especies, sotobosque. ABSTRACT To estimating in which layer of the tropical forest occurs the highest diversity of species of insect gall-makers and leaf miners, a survey was performed from March 1997 to May 1998 in two forests of the Republic of Panama (Parque Natural Metropolitano and Fuerte Sherman). Our results indicate that the canopy of tropical forest supports a higher species richness of insect gall-maker and leaf miners than the understorey. The proportion of species of both of these groups in the canopy and understorey is 2:1, respectively. The Fisher index alpha indicates that both groups of insects are more diverse in the canopy that in the understorey, the canopy of Fuerte Sherman being where the highest abundance of some morphospecies occurs.

  • Source
    Revista Chapingo, Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente 06/2011; · 0.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the "harsh environment hypothesis", and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114986. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The availability and quality of resources for herbivores in tropical dry forests (TDFs) vary in time and space, affecting herbivore guilds differently across spatial scales (both horizontally and vertically), with consequences to the distribution of leaf damage in these forests. We attempted to elucidate the distribution patterns of herbivorous insect guilds and leaf damage throughout the secondary succession and vertical stratification along the rainy season in a Brazilian TDF. With the advance of the succession, a greater richness and abundance of herbivorous insects were found, resulting in higher leaf damage in intermediate and late stages. This pattern, however, was not observed for the frequency of leaf miners. At a smaller spatial scale, the host tree height positively affected the richness and abundance of insects. The higher leaf damage was found in canopy, which also harbored a greater richness and abundance of chewing herbivores compared to the understory at both the beginning and the end of the rainy season. Although for sap-sucking insects, this was only true at the beginning of the season. We detected a decrease in insect richness and abundance at the end of the rainy season, probably due to a synchronization of insect activity with the availability of young, highly nutritious plant tissues. These results are consistent with other studies that found a general trend of increasing richness and abundance of herbivorous insects and leaf damage throughout the secondary succession (early to late stages) and between vertical strata (understory to canopy), suggesting that forest complexity positively affects herbivores. Resumo Em florestas tropicais secas (FTSs), a disponibilidade e qualidade de recursos para herbívoros variam no tempo e espaço, afetando as guildas de herbívoros de forma diferente dependendo da escala espacial (tanto horizontal como verticalmente), com consequências para a distribuição do dano foliar nesses ecossistemas. No presente estudo foram testadas hipóteses ecológicas que tentam elucidar os padrões de distribuição de insetos herbívoros e dano foliar causado por distintas guildas de insetos ao longo da sucessão secundária, estratificação vertical e da estação chuvosa em uma FTS brasileira. De maneira geral, estágios de sucessão avançados (intermediário e tardio) abrigaram uma maior riqueza e abundância de insetos herbívoros de vida livre, resultando em maior porcentagem de área foliar removida por planta nesses estágios. Porém, esse padrão não foi verificado para insetos minadores. Em uma escala espacial menor, verificamos que a altura da árvore afetou positivamente a riqueza e abundância de insetos herbívoros. Os maiores níveis de herbivoria foram encontrados no dossel, onde também foi detectada maior riqueza e abundância de herbívoros mastigadores tanto no início quanto no final da estação chuvosa. Entretanto, para insetos sugadores o mesmo só foi observado no início dessa estação. Por fim, observamos uma redução na riqueza e abundância de insetos herbívoros no final da estação chuvosa, provavelmente devido à sincronização da atividade dos insetos com a produção de folhas novas e de melhor qualidade nutricional. Nossos resultados corroboram outros estudos que observaram uma tendência geral de aumento da riqueza e abundância de insetos herbívoros e dano foliar ao longo da sucessão secundária e entre estratos verticais, sugerindo um efeito positivo da complexidade florestal sobre os herbívoros.
    Biotropica 10/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014