Acta Zoologica (Impact Factor: 1.47). 01/2003; 89:153-168.
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT RESUMEN Con el proposito de estimar en que estrato del bosque tropical ocurre mayor diversidad de especies de insectos formadores de agallas y minadores de hojas, se realizaron muestreos desde marzo de 1997 a mayo de 1998 en dos bosques de la República de Panamá (Parque Natural Metropolitano y Fuerte Sherman). Nuestros resultados indican que en el dosel de ambos bosques existe mayor riqueza de insectos formadores de agallas y minadores de hojas que en el sotobosque, siendo la proporción de especies de estos dos grupos en el dosel y sotobosque de 2:1 respectivamente. El índice alfa de Fisher indica que los dos grupos de insectos son más diversos en el dosel de los dos bosques que en el sotobosque, siendo el dosel del Fuerte Sherman donde ocurre mayor abundancia de algunas morfoespecies. Palabras Claves: diversidad, dosel, insecto formador de agalla, insecto minador de hoja, Panamá, riqueza de especies, sotobosque. ABSTRACT To estimating in which layer of the tropical forest occurs the highest diversity of species of insect gall-makers and leaf miners, a survey was performed from March 1997 to May 1998 in two forests of the Republic of Panama (Parque Natural Metropolitano and Fuerte Sherman). Our results indicate that the canopy of tropical forest supports a higher species richness of insect gall-maker and leaf miners than the understorey. The proportion of species of both of these groups in the canopy and understorey is 2:1, respectively. The Fisher index alpha indicates that both groups of insects are more diverse in the canopy that in the understorey, the canopy of Fuerte Sherman being where the highest abundance of some morphospecies occurs.

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    ABSTRACT: Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long) more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, representing the main land habitats of Coiba National Park were surveyed. 4942 galls of 50 insect and 9 mite species inducing galls on 50 vascular plants from 30 botanical families were colleted. 62.7% of the galls were induced by gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), 15.3% by mites, Eriophyidae, 8.5% by Homoptera, Psyllidae, 6.8% by Coccidae and 5.1% by Phlaeothripidae (Tysanoptera). The host plant families with the most galls were Myrtaceae with seven, Bignoniaceae with five and Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Melastomataceae with four. Leaf galls accounted for about 93% of collected galls. Most leaf galls were pit/blister galls followed by covering and pouch galls. Gall richness per collecting site was between 1 and 19 species. Coiba's gall diversity is discussed in relation to data available from other tropical sites from continental Panama and the Neotropical region. Our results support the idea that it may be premature to conclude that species richness of gall inducers declines near the equator.
    Revista de biologia tropical 10/2008; 56(3):1269-86. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The availability and quality of resources for herbivores in tropical dry forests (TDFs) vary in time and space, affecting herbivore guilds differently across spatial scales (both horizontally and vertically), with consequences to the distribution of leaf damage in these forests. We attempted to elucidate the distribution patterns of herbivorous insect guilds and leaf damage throughout the secondary succession and vertical stratification along the rainy season in a Brazilian TDF. With the advance of the succession, a greater richness and abundance of herbivorous insects were found, resulting in higher leaf damage in intermediate and late stages. This pattern, however, was not observed for the frequency of leaf miners. At a smaller spatial scale, the host tree height positively affected the richness and abundance of insects. The higher leaf damage was found in canopy, which also harbored a greater richness and abundance of chewing herbivores compared to the understory at both the beginning and the end of the rainy season. Although for sap-sucking insects, this was only true at the beginning of the season. We detected a decrease in insect richness and abundance at the end of the rainy season, probably due to a synchronization of insect activity with the availability of young, highly nutritious plant tissues. These results are consistent with other studies that found a general trend of increasing richness and abundance of herbivorous insects and leaf damage throughout the secondary succession (early to late stages) and between vertical strata (understory to canopy), suggesting that forest complexity positively affects herbivores. Resumo Em florestas tropicais secas (FTSs), a disponibilidade e qualidade de recursos para herbívoros variam no tempo e espaço, afetando as guildas de herbívoros de forma diferente dependendo da escala espacial (tanto horizontal como verticalmente), com consequências para a distribuição do dano foliar nesses ecossistemas. No presente estudo foram testadas hipóteses ecológicas que tentam elucidar os padrões de distribuição de insetos herbívoros e dano foliar causado por distintas guildas de insetos ao longo da sucessão secundária, estratificação vertical e da estação chuvosa em uma FTS brasileira. De maneira geral, estágios de sucessão avançados (intermediário e tardio) abrigaram uma maior riqueza e abundância de insetos herbívoros de vida livre, resultando em maior porcentagem de área foliar removida por planta nesses estágios. Porém, esse padrão não foi verificado para insetos minadores. Em uma escala espacial menor, verificamos que a altura da árvore afetou positivamente a riqueza e abundância de insetos herbívoros. Os maiores níveis de herbivoria foram encontrados no dossel, onde também foi detectada maior riqueza e abundância de herbívoros mastigadores tanto no início quanto no final da estação chuvosa. Entretanto, para insetos sugadores o mesmo só foi observado no início dessa estação. Por fim, observamos uma redução na riqueza e abundância de insetos herbívoros no final da estação chuvosa, provavelmente devido à sincronização da atividade dos insetos com a produção de folhas novas e de melhor qualidade nutricional. Nossos resultados corroboram outros estudos que observaram uma tendência geral de aumento da riqueza e abundância de insetos herbívoros e dano foliar ao longo da sucessão secundária e entre estratos verticais, sugerindo um efeito positivo da complexidade florestal sobre os herbívoros.
    Biotropica 10/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies over the past twenty years have documented the richness of arthropod galling species around the world, and some have proposed hypotheses to explain local and global patterns of galling species richness. However, few studies have been directed toward understanding how the gall-inducing species are locally distributed. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of gall-inducing arthropods species at Coiba National Park, a tropical habitat on the Pacific coast of Panama. Our results suggest that more gall-inducing species had an aggregated distribution, and gall-inducing arthropod diversity shows a strong beta diversity component. Geographic distance was not correlated with similarity in gall-inducing species composition between the studied sites. This fact has important implications when trying to estimate gall-inducing arthropod richness and general patterns, and could cause contradictory results for hypotheses that attempt to explain the local and global patterns of galling species richness.
    Neotropical Entomology 01/2010; 39(3):365-70. · 0.68 Impact Factor

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