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Efeitos de um programa de exercício multicomponente na flexibilidade de mulheres idosas

Revista Portuguesa de Ciências do Desporto 04/2011; 11(1):457-464.

ABSTRACT RESUMO O objectivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da aplicação de um programa de exercício multicomponente (EM) na amplitu-de de movimento das articulações do ombro e da anca de mulheres idosas. Sessenta e seis mulheres foram divididas aleatoriamente em grupo experimental (GE, n=26; média de idade = 70,37±3,66 anos) e grupo controlo (GC, n=24; média de idade =73,90±4,17anos). O GE participou num programa bissema-nal (50 minutos) de EM durante 6 meses. As sessões de treino incluíram exercícios aeróbios, resistência muscular, equilíbrio e alongamentos estáticos passivos e activos das principais articu-lações durante 15 minutos. Os indivíduos foram avaliados antes e depois do programa de treino utilizando os testes chair sit-and-reach, back scratch, e medição das amplitudes articulares dos movimentos de flexão, extensão, abdução e rotação do ombro e da anca utilizando um goniómetro universal. Os resultados mostraram que a mudança induzida pelo programa de EM no GE foi significativamente diferente da observada após 6 meses no GC, para todas as amplitudes articulares avaliadas por goniometria (à excepção da rotação medial activa do ombro), e nos testes chair sit-and-reach (GE, 3,44; p<0,001 vs. GC, -0,71; p≤0,001) e back scratch (GE, 3,00; p<0,001 vs. GC, -0,57; p≤0,001) no GE. Com excepção dos movimentos de rotação lateral passiva do ombro, decorri-dos 6 meses, o GC apresentou perdas de amplitude articular assim como piorou o desempenho nos testes funcionais. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que um programa de EM parece alterar positivamente a amplitude articular de algumas articulações importantes para a manutenção da funcionalidade de mulheres idosas fisicamente independentes. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram, também, o efeito nefasto do desu-so sobre a flexibilidade dos idosos. Palavra-chave: treino, amplitude de movimento, idosos ABSTRACT Effects of a multicomponent exercise training program on flexibility of older women The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multicom-ponent exercise (ME) program on flexibility of shoulder and hip of healthy elderly women. Sixty-six women were randomly divided into experimental group (EG, n= 26, mean age = 70,37±3,66 years) and control group (CG, n= 24, mean age= 73,90±4,17 years). The experi-mental group underwent ME protocol held twice per week and each session lasted about 50 min, over a period of 6 months. The sessions included endurance, strength, balance, and flexi-bility exercises and static stretches of the major joints during 15 minutes. Before-and after-training, chair sit-and-reach and back scratch tests were applied and range of motion (ROM) was examined at shoulder and hip, using a goniometer. The results showed that the change induced with the ME training was significantly higher than the change observed after 6 months in the CG, for all ROM movements assessed by goniometry, as well as, in chair sit-and-reach (EG, 3,44; p<0,001 vs. CG, -0,71; p≤0,001) and back scratch tests (EG, 3,00; p<0,001 vs. CG, -0,57; p≤0,001) in EG. After 6 months, excluding shoulder passive lateral rotation, CG showed a loss of ROM in all the other movements. Results of the present study suggest that a ME seems to posi-tively change the flexibility of several important articulations related with functional independence of healthy community-dwelling older women. Data also demonstrate the adverse effect of disuse on the flexibility of elderly adults.

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