Experimental Infection of European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) with Pandemic 2009 H1N1 and Swine H1N1 and H3N2 Triple Reassortant Influenza Viruses
ABSTRACT European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) are common peridomestic passerine birds that are often associated with domestic animal production facilities. This association provides a potential means for pathogen transmission between facilities. We inoculated European Starlings and House Sparrows with three non-avian influenza virus strains: two swine isolates (H1N1 and H3N2) and one human isolate representing the H1N1 pandemic strain that originated from swine. No viral shedding was observed in House Sparrows, and shedding was minimal and transient in two of 12 (17%) European Starlings. One of these two infected Starlings seroconverted 14 days after inoculation. These results suggest that these two passerine species are minimally susceptible to current influenza viruses in domestic pigs and therefore pose a negligible risk for transmission between or within swine production facilities.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed CentralEmerging Infectious Diseases 06/2010; 16(6):1043-5. DOI:10.3201/eid1606.100352 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Transmission within these aquatic bird populations occurs through an indirect fecal-oral route involving contaminated water on shared aquatic habitats. In order to better understand the influence that aquatic environments exert on AI transmission and maintenance in the wild-bird reservoir system, we determined the duration of persistence for 12 wild-bird origin AI viruses under natural ranges of pH, salinity, and temperature. Viral persistence was measured using a laboratory-based distilled water model system. The AI viruses varied in their response to each of the examined variables, but, generally, the viruses were most stable at a slightly basic pH (7.4-8.2), low temperatures (<17 degrees C), and fresh to brackish salinities (0-20,000 parts per million (ppm)). Alternatively, the AI viruses had a much shorter duration of persistence in acidic conditions (pH<6.6), warmer temperatures (>32 degrees C), and high salinity (>25,000 ppm). The results of this research suggest that the pH, temperature, and salinity in natural aquatic habitats can influence the ability of AI viruses to remain infective within these environments. Furthermore, these results provide insight into chemical and physical properties of water that could enhance or restrict AI virus transmission on an aquatic bird habitat.Veterinary Microbiology 11/2008; 136(1-2):20-6. DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.10.027 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although starlings were associated with S. enterica in cattle feed and water the serotype data did not suggest starling faeces contributed to the contamination process. Only one serotype was successfully isolated from starling faeces, S. Saint Paul. This serotype is pathogenic to cattle but it was not isolated from cattle feed, water troughs or faecal samples. Based upon our data and behavioral observations of starlings we hypothesize that starlings mechanically transmit contaminated cattle faecal material from cattle pens to other locations within CAFOs, especially feed troughs and water troughs. Starlings captured within CAFOs had visible amounts of cattle faeces on their feet and feathers. This faecal material was probably being disseminated in feed troughs and water troughs when the birds fed and drank. Also, starlings were regularly observed bathing in the open, shallow water within the troughs. As a consequence of this starling behaviour, cattle faecal material is being moved from the animal pens to cattle feed and water, and this will be likely to increase S. enterica loads in both media. The ability of starlings to mechanically transmit disease is not well documented. Previous studies have considered starling faeces as a possible source for S. enterica in CAFOs (Gaukler et al. 2009) but they did not consider mechanical transmission. Thus, mechanical transport of pathogens by birds in CAFOs is a potential source for disease that deserves a closer examination.Journal of Applied Ecology 05/2011; 48(2):479 - 486. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01935.x · 4.75 Impact Factor