Experimental Infection of European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) with Pandemic 2009 H1N1 and Swine H1N1 and H3N2 Triple Reassortant Influenza Viruses
ABSTRACT European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) are common peridomestic passerine birds that are often associated with domestic animal production facilities. This association provides a potential means for pathogen transmission between facilities. We inoculated European Starlings and House Sparrows with three non-avian influenza virus strains: two swine isolates (H1N1 and H3N2) and one human isolate representing the H1N1 pandemic strain that originated from swine. No viral shedding was observed in House Sparrows, and shedding was minimal and transient in two of 12 (17%) European Starlings. One of these two infected Starlings seroconverted 14 days after inoculation. These results suggest that these two passerine species are minimally susceptible to current influenza viruses in domestic pigs and therefore pose a negligible risk for transmission between or within swine production facilities.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed CentralEmerging Infectious Diseases 06/2010; 16(6):1043-5. DOI:10.3201/eid1606.100352 · 6.75 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Transmission within these aquatic bird populations occurs through an indirect fecal-oral route involving contaminated water on shared aquatic habitats. In order to better understand the influence that aquatic environments exert on AI transmission and maintenance in the wild-bird reservoir system, we determined the duration of persistence for 12 wild-bird origin AI viruses under natural ranges of pH, salinity, and temperature. Viral persistence was measured using a laboratory-based distilled water model system. The AI viruses varied in their response to each of the examined variables, but, generally, the viruses were most stable at a slightly basic pH (7.4-8.2), low temperatures (<17 degrees C), and fresh to brackish salinities (0-20,000 parts per million (ppm)). Alternatively, the AI viruses had a much shorter duration of persistence in acidic conditions (pH<6.6), warmer temperatures (>32 degrees C), and high salinity (>25,000 ppm). The results of this research suggest that the pH, temperature, and salinity in natural aquatic habitats can influence the ability of AI viruses to remain infective within these environments. Furthermore, these results provide insight into chemical and physical properties of water that could enhance or restrict AI virus transmission on an aquatic bird habitat.Veterinary Microbiology 11/2008; 136(1-2):20-6. DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.10.027 · 2.51 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 1. Characterizing and mitigating the disease risks associated with wildlife use of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can reduce the spread of micro-organisms throughout the environment while increasing agricultural productivity. To better understand the disease risks associated with bird use of CAFOs, we assessed the capacity of European starlings Sturnus vulgaris to spread Salmonella enterica to cattle, their feed and water. 2. We sampled starlings, cattle feed, cattle water and cattle faeces from 10 CAFOs in Texas, USA. Samples were screened for Salmonella enterica to investigate: (i) the prevalence of S. enterica in starlings using CAFOs, (ii) whether there was a relationship between cattle infections and starling numbers, and (iii) if S. enterica contamination of cattle feed and water was related to numbers of starlings observed on CAFOs. 3. We used generalized linear mixed logistic regression models to assess the importance of starlings, cattle stocking, facility management and environmental variables in the transmission of S. enterica to cattle, feed troughs and water troughs in CAFOs. 4. Starling gastrointestinal tract samples tested positive for S. enterica (2·5% prevalence; 95% CI = 0·3%, 8·6%) and starlings were retained as model covariates in the best supported logistic regression models for S. enterica contamination within cattle feed, water and faeces. 5. Salmonella enterica contamination of both cattle feed troughs and water troughs is significantly related to numbers of starlings. Contamination in cattle feed increased as more starlings entered feed troughs. Contamination in water troughs increased asymptotically as numbers of starlings on CAFOs increased. Starling variables in the cattle faecal shedding model were not significant. 6. Synthesis and applications. The numbers of European starlings better explained S. enterica contamination of cattle feed and water than other variables including cattle stocking, facility management and environmental variables. This suggests that starlings are a source of S. enterica contamination in CAFOs. Thus, starling management tools such as population control, habitat management, exclusionary devises and bird repellents may be used to reduce the amplification and spread of disease within livestock production systems.Journal of Applied Ecology 05/2011; 48(2):479 - 486. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01935.x · 4.56 Impact Factor