Tracheal agenesis with tracheoesophageal fistulae: fetal MRI diagnosis with confirmation by ultrasound during an ex utero intrapartum therapy (EXIT) delivery and postdelivery MRI
ABSTRACT Tracheal agenesis is a rare and essentially lethal anomaly with divergent prenatal imaging findings depending on the presence or absence of a tracheoesophageal fistula. All prenatally diagnosed cases of tracheal agenesis reported to date have not had a tracheoesophageal fistula and presented with thoracoabdominal findings similar to congenital high airway obstruction syndrome. We present the case of a 32-week gestation fetus with rapid onset of polyhydramnios and no persistent findings of congenital high airway obstruction syndrome that was ultimately diagnosed with tracheal agenesis plus tracheoesophageal fistula by fetal MRI. Additionally, we present the novel uses of intraoperative US during a staged ex utero intrapartum therapy delivery and postdelivery MRI, facilitated by proximity within the neonatal ICU, to confirm diagnosis and direct patient management while minimizing unnecessary investigations.
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ABSTRACT: Tracheal agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. The prevalence is less than 1 : 50 000 with a male to female ratio of 2 : 1. This anomaly may be isolated but, in 93% of cases, it is part of polymalformative syndrome. The most evocative diagnosis situation is the ultrasonographic congenital high airway obstruction syndrome. Dilated airways, enlarged lungs with flattened diaphragm, fetal ascites and severe nonimmune hydrops can be observed. In the absence of a congenital high airway obstruction syndrome, the antenatal diagnosis of tracheal agenesis is difficult. Tracheal agenesis should be suspected in the presence of an unexplained polyhydramnios associated with congenital malformations. The fetal airway exploration should then be systematically performed by fetal thoracic magnetic resonance imaging. A case of Floyd's type II tracheal agenesis, detected during the postnatal period, is reported here. The retrospective reexamination of fetal magnetic resonance images showed that the antenatal diagnosis would have been easy if a systematical examination of upper airways had been performed. Prenatal diagnosis of tracheal agenesis is possible with fetal MRI but the really challenge is to think about this pathology.01/2015; 2015:456028. DOI:10.1155/2015/456028
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ABSTRACT: Congenital obstructions and anomalies of the pediatric airway are rare problems that may be associated with mild symptoms or critical stenoses that may be life-threatening in the first few days of life. This review provides an overview of the embryologic development of the airway, different congenital anomalies associated with airway development, and surgical correction that may be associated with good long-term outcome.Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 09/2014; DOI:10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2014.09.005