Distribution of pesticides in n-hexane/water and n-hexane/acetonitrile systems and estimation of possibilities of their extraction isolation and preconcentration from various matrices.
ABSTRACT Distribution of 150 most widely used pesticides of different chemical classes (amides, anilinopirimidines, aromatics, benzenesulfonates, carbamates, dicarboximides, organophosphorus compounds, phenyl esters, phenylureas, pyrazoles, pyrethroids, pyrimidines, strobilurins, sulfamides, triazines, triazoles, etc.) in n-hexane/water and n-hexane/acetonitrile systems was investigated at 25°C. Distribution constants of pesticides (P) have been calculated as ratio of pesticide concentration in n-hexane to its concentration in water or acetonitrile phase. HPLC and GC methods were used for pesticides determination in phases. It was found that the overwhelming majority of pesticides are hydrophobic, i.e. in n-hexane/water system LgP≫0, and the difference in LgP values can reach 9.1 units. Replacement of water for acetonitrile leads to dramatic fall of LgP values reaching 9.5 units. The majority of LgP values in this case are negative and their differences is strongly leveled in comparison with a hexane/water system. Thus, maximal difference in pesticides LgP values for n-hexane/acetonitrile system is 3.2 units. It is shown that n-hexane can be used for selective and efficient extraction and preconcentration of pesticides from water matrices. On the other hand, acetonitrile is effective for the isolation and preconcentration of pesticides from hydrocarbon and vegetable oil matrices. The distribution constants described in the paper may be effectively used for the estimation of possibilities of extraction isolation, preconcentration and separation of pesticides.
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ABSTRACT: The quantitative thermodynamic development of the mobile order and disorder theory in H-bonded liquids is extended in order to predict the partition coefficient. With respect to the classical predictive methods, the great advantage of the present approach resides in the possibility of predicting partition coefficient not only in the reference n-octanol/water partitioning system, but also in any mutually saturated two-phase system made up of two largely immiscible solvents. Constructed from the various free energy contributions encoded in the distribution process, the model furthermore provides a useful tool to understand both the origin and the factors, like the solute molar volume, that determine the partitioning of non-electrolytes between two immiscible liquid phases. From the comparison of the relative magnitude of the terms which contribute to the overall log P value, much information can also be gained concerning the variation of the partition coefficients of the same substances in different distribution systems. For example, the model has successfully been applied to the log P prediction of a number of environmentally important chemicals of varying structure, size and chemical nature in the n-octanol/water and n-hexane/water systems. Whatever the complexing or non-complexing substances studied, the hydrophobic effect always represent the driving force that rules distribution processes in the aqueous environments. As the dominant contribution to the partition coefficient in any organic/aqueous binary system, it is evidenced why hydrophobicity is usually considered to be a good measure of lipophilicity.Chemosphere 04/2000; 40(5):457-512. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A rapid and simple method has been developed for simultaneous determination of different classes of pesticide in different varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativum). Lettuce samples were extracted by homogenization with acetone and partitioned into ethyl acetate-cyclohexane. Subsequent sample clean-up was not needed. Pesticide residues were determined by capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD). Confirmatory analysis of the pesticides was performed by capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in selected-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. Recovery at two levels of fortification (ca. 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg(-1)) ranged from 63.9 to 118.6%, and relative standard deviations were below 9.5%. The proposed method was used to determine pesticide levels in different types of lettuce grown in soil from experimental fields.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 10/2007; 389(2):643-51. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ethyl acetate-based multi-residue method for determination of pesticide residues in produce has been modified for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis by implementation of dispersive solid-phase extraction (using primary-secondary amine and graphitized carbon black) and large-volume (20 muL) injection. The same extract, before clean-up and after a change of solvent, was also analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). All aspects related to sample preparation were re-assessed with regard to ease and speed of the analysis. The principle of the extraction procedure (solvent, salt) was not changed, to avoid the possibility invalidating data acquired over past decades. The modifications were made with techniques currently commonly applied in routine laboratories, GC-MS and LC-MS-MS, in mind. The modified method enables processing (from homogenization until final extracts for both GC and LC) of 30 samples per eight hours per person. Limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.01 mg kg(-1) were achieved with both GC-MS (full-scan acquisition, 10 mg matrix equivalent injected) and LC-MS-MS (2 mg injected) for most of the pesticides. Validation data for 341 pesticides and degradation products are presented. A compilation of analytical quality-control data for pesticides routinely analyzed by GC-MS (135 compounds) and LC-MS-MS (136 compounds) in over 100 different matrices, obtained over a period of 15 months, are also presented and discussed. At the 0.05 mg kg(-1) level acceptable recoveries were obtained for 93% (GC-MS) and 92% (LC-MS-MS) of pesticide-matrix combinations.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 12/2007; 389(6):1715-54. · 3.66 Impact Factor