[Haemophilus meningitis in properly vaccinated children: Report of three cases.]
ABSTRACT The 1993 introduction in France of the vaccine against the serotype b of Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) resulted in a fast reduction of invasive infections caused by this species. However, despite the introduction of a booster dose, cases of Hib meningitis can still be observed, even if they are exceptional. We report here on 3 cases of Hib meningitis observed at Rennes University Hospital, which occurred during the winter seasons between 2007 and 2010, in properly vaccinated infants and children aged 9, 14, and 29 months. Progression after treatment was satisfactory in all 3 cases, and no immune deficiency was detected. After 18 years of the vaccination policy in France, these observations demonstrate that a risk, although much lower, of Hib meningitis persists in infants and children, including in vaccinated patients, and that strains still are circulating within the general population.
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ABSTRACT: Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) diseases began a quarter of a century ago with a polysaccharide vaccine; this vaccine was followed by four different conjugates 10 years later. In this review, the burden of global Hib disease is quantified following this 25-year period of vaccine availability to determine the potential impact of conjugate vaccines. This task was accomplished by analysis of data available in 10 languages in 75 geographical regions of over 50 countries. All severe Hib diseases, not only meningitis, were characterized, and special attention was paid to the most vulnerable age group, i.e., children aged 0 to 4 years. Prior to vaccination, the weighted worldwide incidence of meningitis in patients younger than 5 years was 57/100,000, and for all Hib diseases except nonbacteremic pneumonia, it was 71/100,000, indicating 357,000 and 445,000 cases per year, respectively. At least 108,500 of these children died. For all age groups combined, there were 486,000 cases of Hib disease, excluding pneumonia, with 114,200 deaths and probably an equal number of sequelae per annum. If the figures for nonbacteremic pneumonia are included, a conservative estimate is that over 2.2 million cases of infection and 520,000 deaths from Hib disease occurred worldwide, but the true numbers might have been greater. Despite these large numbers and availability of safe and efficacious vaccines, only 38,000 cases annually are prevented-a meager 8% or less than a 2% reduction in cases, depending on whether nonbacteremic pneumonia is included in the calculations. Although vaccination has had great success in some affluent countries, the current level of activity has had a very small impact globally. The use of conjugates, preferably with a reduced number of doses and in combination with other vaccines or perhaps in fractional doses, should be extended to less privileged countries, where most Hib disease occurs.Clinical Microbiology Reviews 05/2000; 13(2):302-17. DOI:10.1128/CMR.13.2.302-317.2000 · 16.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A child with recurrent infections represents a challenge to the pediatrician who must identify, among a large number of repeatedly infected but nevertheless healthy children whose parents need to be reassured, the rare cases of potentially severe immune deficiency. This can be most successfully achieved through the measurement of IgA, IgG, and antibody titers to vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae B) and exposure (pneumococcus) antigens. The presence of normal antibody responses makes it possible to rule out underlying immune deficiency in a sensitive and specific manner. Conversely, abnormally weak antibody responses identify the children who have to be referred without delay for further investigation of a potential immune defect. This article indicates for which pediatric patients an immunodeficiency screening should be considered, and how to analyze its results.Archives de Pédiatrie 03/2001; 8(2):205-10. · 0.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines are extremely effective in protecting infants and children from invasive Hib infections; however, vaccine failures do occur. The anti-Hib antibody production was studied both quantitatively and qualitatively in 12 patients who experienced Hib failure, all of whom had normal serum immunoglobulin concentrations and all of whom were without clinical risk factors for invasive Hib disease. Both anti-Hib antibody concentration and immunoglobulin-G2 anti-Hib antibody avidity were significantly lower in patients who experienced Hib failure, at onset of disease and after reconvalescence, when compared with controls. This finding suggests that the patients who developed invasive Hib disease--despite having received 3-4 Hib conjugate vaccinations--were inadequately primed by these vaccinations.Clinical Infectious Diseases 02/2002; 34(2):191-7. DOI:10.1086/338259 · 9.42 Impact Factor