Diagnostic and Management Approach to Common Sleep Disorders During Pregnancy.
ABSTRACT The significance for maternal and fetal health of gestational obstructive sleep apnea, primary insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and narcolepsy are summarized. The pathophysiology, signs, symptoms, and basic Sleep Medicine concepts that assist the obstetrician in suspecting these 4 conditions are described. Where appropriate, initial management options are also outlined. Referral guidelines to a Sleep Medicine specialist are included when further diagnostic, severity assessment, and management suggestions are needed.
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ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS)/Willis-Ekbom disease (WED) is common during pregnancy, affecting approximately one in five pregnant women in Western countries. Many report moderate or severe symptoms and negative impact on sleep. There is very little information in the medical literature for practitioners on the management of this condition during pregnancy. Accordingly, a task force was chosen by the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) to develop guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of RLS/WED during pregnancy and lactation. A committee of nine experts in RLS/WED and/or obstetrics developed a set of 12 consensus questions, conducted a literature search, and extensively discussed potential guidelines. Recommendations were approved by the IRLSSG executive committee, reviewed by IRLSSG membership, and approved by the WED Foundation Medical Advisory Board. These guidelines address diagnosis, differential diagnosis, clinical course, and severity assessment of RLS/WED during pregnancy and lactation. Nonpharmacologic approaches, including reassurance, exercise and avoidance of exacerbating factors, are outlined. A rationale for iron supplementation is presented. Medications for RLS/WED are risk/benefit rated for use during pregnancy and lactation. A few are rated "may be considered" when RLS/WED is refractory to more conservative approaches. An algorithm summarizes the recommendations. These guidelines are intended to improve clinical practice and promote further research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Sleep Medicine Reviews 11/2014; 22. DOI:10.1016/j.smrv.2014.10.009 · 9.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep disorders are highly prevalent during late pregnancy and can impose adverse effects such as pre-eclampsia and diabetes. However, the consequences of fragmented sleep (SF) on offspring metabolism and epigenomic signatures are unclear. We report that physical activity during early life, but not later, reversed the increased body weight, altered glucose and lipid homeostasis, and increased visceral adipose tissue in offspring of mice subjected to gestational SF (SFo). The reversibility of this phenotype may reflect epigenetic mechanisms induced by SF during gestation. Accordingly, we found that the metabolic master switch Foxo1 was epigenetically misregulated in SFo livers in a temporally-regulated fashion. Temporal Foxo1 analysis and its gluconeogenetic targets revealed that the epigenetic abnormalities of Foxo1 precede the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Importantly, regular physical activity early, but not later in life, reversed Foxo1 epigenetic misregulation and altered the metabolic phenotype in gestationally SF-exposed offspring. Thus, we have identified a restricted post-natal period during which lifestyle interventions may reverse the Foxo1 epigenetically-mediated risk for metabolic dysfunction later in the life, as induced by gestational sleep disorders. Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 01/2015; 308(5):ajpregu.00426.2014. DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00426.2014 · 3.53 Impact Factor