Diagnostic and Management Approach to Common Sleep Disorders During Pregnancy.
ABSTRACT The significance for maternal and fetal health of gestational obstructive sleep apnea, primary insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and narcolepsy are summarized. The pathophysiology, signs, symptoms, and basic Sleep Medicine concepts that assist the obstetrician in suspecting these 4 conditions are described. Where appropriate, initial management options are also outlined. Referral guidelines to a Sleep Medicine specialist are included when further diagnostic, severity assessment, and management suggestions are needed.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the association of sleeping problems with suicide risk. Prospective cohort study linking health survey information on sleep problems to Norway's national mortality registry. Participants were followed up from 1984-6 until December 31, 2004. Residents of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, aged 20 years or older in 1984-6. Altogether 87,285 people were eligible for the survey and 74,977 (86%) took part in one or more aspects of the study. N/A MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Three percent of participants experienced sleeping problems every night, 5% experienced problems "often" and 31% reported problems "sometimes." There were 188 suicides during follow-up. Sleeping problems at baseline were strongly associated with subsequent suicide risk. Compared to participants who reported no sleeping problems the age- and sex- adjusted hazard ratios for suicide were 1.9 (CI 1.3-2.6), 2.7 (CI 1.4-5.0), and 4.3 (CI 2.3-8.3) for reporting sleeping problems sometimes, often, or almost every night, respectively. Associations were stronger in younger (< 50 years) participants, but we found no statistical evidence for gender differences. Adjusting for measures of common mental disorder and alcohol use at baseline weakened the associations, but the 3% of subjects with the worst sleep patterns remained at two fold increased risk of suicide. Sleeping problems are a marker of suicide risk, mainly due to the presence of both sleeping problems and mixed anxiety and depression. Physicians should be aware of the possible vulnerability for people affected by sleeping problems.Sleep 01/2011; 34(9):1155-9. · 5.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OSA is the result of structural and functional abnormalities that promote the repetitive collapse of the upper airway during sleep. This common disorder is estimated to occur in approximately 4% of men and 2% of women, with prevalence studies from North America, Australia, Europe and Asia indicating that occurrence is relatively similar across the globe. Anatomical factors, such as obesity and craniofacial morphology, are key determinants of the predisposition to airway collapse; however, their relative importance for OSA risk likely varies between ethnicities. Direct inter-ethnic studies comparing craniofacial phenotypes in OSA are limited. However, available data suggest that Asian OSA populations primarily display features of craniofacial skeletal restriction, African Americans display more obesity and enlarged upper airway soft tissues, while Caucasians show evidence of both bony and soft tissue abnormalities. Our recent comparison of Chinese and Caucasian OSA patients found for the same degree of OSA severity. Caucasians were more obese, and Chinese had more skeletal restriction. However, the ratio of obesity to craniofacial bony size (or anatomical balance, an important determinant of upper airway volume and OSA risk) was similar between Caucasians and Chinese OSA patients. Ethnicity appears to influence OSA craniofacial phenotype but furthermore the relative contribution of the anatomical factors underlying OSA risk. The skeletal restriction craniofacial phenotype may be particularly vulnerable to increasing obesity rates. Better understanding of craniofacial phenotypes encompassing ethnicity may help improve OSA recognition and treatment; however, further studies are needed to elucidate ethnic differences in OSA anatomical risk factors.Respirology 02/2012; 17(2):213-22. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep is an essential human behavior that shows prominent gender differences. Disturbed sleep, in particular, is much more prevalent in females than males. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) as one cause of disturbed sleep was observed to be somewhat more common among women than men in Ekbom's 1945 seminal series of clinical cases with the disease. He, however, reported this gender difference mainly for those with more severe symptoms. Since then numerous studies have reported that women are affected by RLS about twice as often as males for mild as well as moderate to severe RLS. The present review focuses on RLS in females from the perspectives of both epidemiology and pathophysiology. RLS will generally become worse or might appear for the first time during pregnancy. Parity increases the risk of RLS later in life suggesting that pregnancy is a specific behavioral risk factor for developing RLS. Some evidence suggests that dysfunction in iron metabolism and high estrogen levels might contribute to RLS during pregnancy. But, menopause does not lower the incidence of RLS nor does hormone replacement therapy lead to an increase, suggesting a quite complex uncertain role of hormones in the pathophysiology of RLS. Therefore, further, preferably longitudinal studies are needed to unravel the factors causing RLS in women. These studies should include genetic, clinical and polysomnographic variables, as well as hormonal measures and variables assessing iron metabolism.Sleep Medicine Reviews 11/2011; 16(4):297-307. · 9.14 Impact Factor