Epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and phlebotomine sandfly population, in the municipality of Monte Negro, State of Rondonia, Brazil

Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical (Impact Factor: 0.93). 01/2013; 46(1):60-6. DOI: 10.1590/0037-868216062013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Introduction: This work was carried out on the purpose of identifying the species of phlebotomine sandflies in the municipality of Monte Negro, state of Rondonia, Brazil, that may have been transmitting the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and concisely describe epidemiological aspects of disease.
The epidemiologic and socioeconomical indicators were obtained from government institutions and the local Municipal Secretary of Health. Phlebotomine sandflies were captured using CDC light traps between July 2006 to July 2008. The total of 1,240 of female sandflies were examined by PCR method directed to k-DNA.
There has been a significant decrease in the incidence of ACL of about 50% over the last ten years in the municipality. A total of 1,935 specimens of 53 sandfly species were captured, three of the genus Brumptomyia genus and 50 of the genus Lutzomyia. The predominant species was Lutzomyia acanthopharynx, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia geniculata and Lutzomyia davisi. None were positive for Leishmania sp.
Four sandflies species were found in the State of Rondonia for the first time: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia tarapacaensis, Lutzomyia melloi and Lutzomyia lenti. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, was also captured. Socioeconomical improvement of Brazilian economy and the increase of environmental surveillance in the last 15 years collaborated in the decrease of people exposed to vectors, reducing the incidence of ACL.

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    ABSTRACT: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic skin disease in many parts of Iran including Khorasan province. Both clinical forms of the disease, anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) are present in this province. However, leishmaniasis molecular map is determined in four cities of Khorasan, but several foci still are remained unknown. The aim was to identify the species of Leishmania causing CL in Khaf, a District in Khorasan-e-Razavi province. Slide smears obtained from skin lesions of 120 patients suspected to leishmaniasis. Direct microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed using specific kinetoplast DNA primers. Data were analyzed with the use of SPSS. Among 120 persons with skin ulcers suspected to CL, the results of direct smear of 54 (45%) samples were positive. PCR band were observed in 66 (55%) of examined samples in which 46 bands identified for Leishmania tropica and 20 for Leishmania major. Both ACL and ZCL are present in Khaf. L. tropica is the dominant causative species for ACL. Further study is recommended to discover probable reservoir and vector for L. major in Khaf.


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May 29, 2014