The HSP70 family and cancer
ABSTRACT The HSP70 family of heat shock proteins consists of molecular chaperones of approximately 70 kDa in size that serve critical roles in protein homeostasis. These ATPases unfold misfolded or denatured proteins, and can keep these proteins in an unfolded, folding-competent state. They also protect nascently-translating proteins, promote the cellular or organellar transport of proteins, reduce proteotoxic protein aggregates, and serve general housekeeping roles in maintaining protein homeostasis. The HSP70 family is the most conserved in evolution, and all eukaryotes contain multiple members. Some members of this family serve specific organellar- or tissue-specific functions; however, in many cases these members can function redundantly. Overall, the HSP70 family of proteins can be thought of as a potent buffering system for cellular stress, either from extrinsic (physiological, viral, environmental) or intrinsic (replicative or oncogenic) stimuli. As such, this family serves a critical survival function in the cell. Not surprisingly cancer cells rely heavily on this buffering system for survival. The overwhelming majority of human tumors overexpress HSP70 family members, and expression of these proteins is typically a marker for poor prognosis. With the proof of principle that inhibitors of the HSP90 chaperone have emerged as important anti-cancer agents, intense focus has now been placed on the potential for HSP70 inhibitors to assume a role as a significant chemotherapeutic avenue. In this review, the history, regulation, mechanism of action, and role in cancer of the HSP70 family is reviewed. Additionally, the promise of pharmacologically-targeting this protein for cancer therapy is addressed.
- SourceAvailable from: Michael Tranter
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- "Although the role of APA in modulating Hsp70.3 expression has not been as well explored, HuR has been previously suggested to regulate Hsp70 levels in renal I/R injury . Interestingly , the development of many human tumors is also associated with HuR activation and overexpression of Hsp70   . "
ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 70.3 (Hsp70.3) expression increases in response to cellular stress and plays a cytoprotective role. We have previously shown that Hsp70.3 expression is controlled through coordinated post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs and alternative polyadenylation (APA), and APA-mediated shortening of the Hsp70.3 3'-UTR facilitates increased protein expression. A stress-induced increase in Hsp70.3 mRNA and protein expression is accompanied by alternative polyadenylation (APA)-mediated truncation of the 3'UTR of the Hsp70.3 mRNA transcript. However, the role that APA plays in stress-induced expression of Hsp70.3 remains unclear. Our results show that APA-mediated truncation of the Hsp70.3 3'UTR increases protein expression through enhanced polyribosome loading. Additionally, we demonstrate that the RNA binding protein HuR, which has been previously shown to play a role in mediating APA, is necessary for heat shock mediated increase in Hsp70.3 mRNA and protein. However, it is somewhat surprising to note that HuR does not play a role in APA of the Hsp70.3 mRNA, and these two regulatory events appear to be mutually exclusive regulators of Hsp70.3 expression. These results not only provide important insight to the regulation of stress response genes following heat shock, but also contribute an enhanced understanding of how alternative polyadenylation contributes to gene regulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 02/2015; 1849(6). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2015.02.004 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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- "A phenomenon potentially governed by differences in the mechanisms of tumor cell death induced by fractionated versus single dose radiation therapy. Notably in p53 mutated and wildtype glioblastoma cell lines fractionated radiotherapy was reported to promote the release of HSP70 , which has been shown to signal DC activation . Interestingly, gene expression profiling of in vitro irradiated breast, prostate and glioma tumor cells also revealed that genes regulating immune (e.g. "
ABSTRACT: Over the last decade there has been a dramatic shift in the focus of cancer research towards understanding how the body's immune defenses can be harnessed to promote the effectiveness of cytotoxic anti-cancer therapies. The ability of ionizing radiation to elicit anti-cancer immune responses capable of controlling tumor growth has led to the emergence of promising combination-based radio-immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. Herein we review the immunoadjuvant properties of localized radiation therapy and discuss how technological advances in radio-oncology and developments in the field of tumor-immunotherapy have started to revolutionize the therapeutic application of radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Cancer Letters 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2015.01.009 · 5.62 Impact Factor
Surgical Science 01/2015; 06(02):26-34. DOI:10.4236/ss.2015.62005
- "Hsps can promote tumorigenesis and the prevention of tumor cell apoptosis -. The amount of Hsp expression in these malignant tumors seemed to correlate with the aggressiveness of the tumors  . However, there was no report of Hsp expression in giant cell tumor of bone from our literature reviews. "