The HSP70 family and cancer.
ABSTRACT The HSP70 family of heat shock proteins consists of molecular chaperones of approximately 70 kDa in size that serve critical roles in protein homeostasis. These ATPases unfold misfolded or denatured proteins, and can keep these proteins in an unfolded, folding-competent state. They also protect nascently-translating proteins, promote the cellular or organellar transport of proteins, reduce proteotoxic protein aggregates, and serve general housekeeping roles in maintaining protein homeostasis. The HSP70 family is the most conserved in evolution, and all eukaryotes contain multiple members. Some members of this family serve specific organellar- or tissue-specific functions; however, in many cases these members can function redundantly. Overall, the HSP70 family of proteins can be thought of as a potent buffering system for cellular stress, either from extrinsic (physiological, viral, environmental) or intrinsic (replicative or oncogenic) stimuli. As such, this family serves a critical survival function in the cell. Not surprisingly cancer cells rely heavily on this buffering system for survival. The overwhelming majority of human tumors overexpress HSP70 family members, and expression of these proteins is typically a marker for poor prognosis. With the proof of principle that inhibitors of the HSP90 chaperone have emerged as important anti-cancer agents, intense focus has now been placed on the potential for HSP70 inhibitors to assume a role as a significant chemotherapeutic avenue. In this review, the history, regulation, mechanism of action, and role in cancer of the HSP70 family is reviewed. Additionally, the promise of pharmacologically-targeting this protein for cancer therapy is addressed.
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ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are constitutively expressed in murine skin. HSP27 is present in the epidermis, and HSP70 can be found in both the epidermis and dermis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these proteins in cutaneous chemical carcinogenesis and to determine whether their effects on cell-mediated immune function were a contributing factor. In vivo inhibition of HSP27 and HSP70 produced a reduction in the T cell-mediated immune response to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene in C3H/HeN mice and resulted in a state of Ag-specific tolerance. When mice were pretreated with anti-HSP27 and anti-HSP70 Abs in vivo prior to subjecting them to a standard two-stage DMBA/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate cutaneous carcinogenesis protocol, the percentage of mice with tumors was much greater (p < 0.05) in anti-HSP27- and HSP70-pretreated animals compared with mice pretreated with control Ab. Similar results were obtained when the data were evaluated as the cumulative number of tumors per group. Mice pretreated with HSP27 and HSP70 Abs developed more H-ras mutations and fewer DMBA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These findings indicate that in mice HSP27 and HSP70 play a key role in the induction of cell-mediated immunity to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Bolstering the immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be an effective method for prevention of the tumors that they produce. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.The Journal of Immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402804 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The application of cytostatic drugs targeting the high proliferation rates of cancer cells is currently the most commonly used treatment option in cancer chemotherapy. However, severe side effects and resistance mechanisms may occur as a result of such treatment, possibly limiting the therapeutic efficacy of these agents. In recent years, several therapeutic strategies have been developed that aim at targeting not the genomic integrity and replication machinery of cancer cells but instead their protein homeostasis. During malignant transformation, the cancer cell proteome develops vast aberrations in the expression of mutated proteins, oncoproteins, drug- and apoptosis-resistance proteins, etc. A complex network of protein quality-control mechanisms, including chaperoning by heat shock proteins (HSPs), not only is essential for maintaining the extravagant proteomic lifestyle of cancer cells but also represents an ideal cancer-specific target to be tackled. Furthermore, the high rate of protein synthesis and turnover in certain types of cancer cells can be specifically directed by interfering with the proteasomal and autophagosomal protein recycling and degradation machinery, as evidenced by the clinical application of proteasome inhibitors. Since proteins with loss of their native conformation are prone to unspecific aggregations and have proved to be detrimental to normal cellular function, specific induction of misfolded proteins by HSP inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, hyperthermia, or inducers of endoplasmic reticulum stress represents a new method of cancer cell killing exploitable for therapeutic purposes. This review describes drugs - approved, repurposed, or under investigation - that can be used to accumulate misfolded proteins in cancer cells, and particularly focuses on the molecular aspects that lead to the cytotoxicity of misfolded proteins in cancer cells.Frontiers in Oncology 02/2015; 5:47. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2015.00047
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ABSTRACT: Genes associated with protein folding have been found to have certain prognostic significance in a subset of cancers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical impact of DNAJC12 expression in patients with rectal cancers receiving neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgery. Through data mining from a public transcriptomic dataset of rectal cancer focusing on genes associated with protein folding, we found DNAJC12, a member of the HSP40/DNAJ family, was the most significant such gene correlated with the CCRT response. We further evaluated the expression of DNAJC12 by immunohistochemistry in the pre-treatment tumor specimens from 172 patients with rectal cancers. From this set, we statistically analyzed the association of DNAJC12 expression with various clinicopathological factors, tumor regression grade, overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and local recurrence-free survival (LRFS). High expression of DNAJC12 was significantly associated with advanced pre- and post-treatment tumor status (P<0.001), advanced pre- and post-treatment nodal status (P<0.001), increased vascular invasion (P=0.015), increased perineural invasion (P=0.023) and lower tumor regression grade (P=0.009). More importantly, high expression of DNAJC12 was found to be correlated with poor prognosis for OS (P=0.0012), DFS (P<0.0001) and LRFS (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, DNAJC12 overexpression still emerged as an independent prognosticator for shorter OS (P=0.040), DFS (P<0.001) and LRFS (P=0.016). The data indicate that DNAJC12 overexpression acts as a negative predictive factor for the response to neoadjuvant CCRT and was significantly associated with shorter survival in patients with rectal cancers receiving neoadjuvant CCRT followed by surgery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Experimental and Molecular Pathology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.yexmp.2015.03.029 · 2.88 Impact Factor