Mitochondrial dynamics in the regulation of nutrient utilization and energy expenditure.
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial fusion, fission, and mitophagy form an essential axis of mitochondrial quality control. However, quality control might not be the only task carried out by mitochondrial dynamics. Recent studies link mitochondrial dynamics to the balance between energy demand and nutrient supply, suggesting changes in mitochondrial architecture as a mechanism for bioenergetic adaptation to metabolic demands. By favoring either connected or fragmented architectures, mitochondrial dynamics regulates bioenergetic efficiency and energy expenditure. Placement of bioenergetic adaptation and quality control as competing tasks of mitochondrial dynamics might provide a new mechanism, linking excess nutrient environment to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction, common to age-related diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Mitofusin2 (Mfn2), a mitochondrial outer membrane protein serving primarily as a mitochondrial fusion protein, has multiple functions in regulating cell biological processes. Defects of Mfn2 were found in diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we found that knockdown of Mfn2 by shRNA led to impaired autophagic degradation, inhibited mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate and cell glycolysis, reduced ATP production, and suppressed cell proliferation. Inhibition of autophagic degradation mimicked Mfn2-deficiency mediated cell proliferation suppression, while enhancement of autophagosome maturation restored the suppressed cell proliferation by Mfn2-deficiency. Thus, our findings revealed the role of Mfn2 in regulating cell proliferation and mitochondrial metabolism, and shed new light on understanding the mechanisms of Mfn2 deficiency related diseases.PLoS ONE 10(3):e0121328. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121328 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes is strongly associated with increased incidence of heart disease and mortality due to development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Even in the absence of cardiovascular disease, cardiomyopathy frequently arises in diabetic patients. Current treatment options for cardiomyopathy in diabetic patients are the same as for non-diabetic patients and do not address the causes underlying the loss of contractility. Recent Advances: Although there are numerous distinctions between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, recent evidence suggests that the two disease states converge on mitochondria as an epicenter for cardiomyocyte damage. Accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria contributes to cardiac tissue injury in both acute and chronic conditions. Removal of damaged mitochondria by macroautophagy, termed "mitophagy", is critical for maintaining cardiomyocyte health and contractility under both normal conditions and during stress. However, very little is known about the involvement of mitophagy in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. A growing interest in this topic has given rise to a wave of publications that aim to decipher the status of autophagy and mitophagy in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes these recent studies with the goal of drawing conclusions about the activation or suppression of autophagy and mitophagy in the diabetic heart. A better understanding of how autophagy and mitophagy are affected in the diabetic myocardium is still needed, as well as whether they can be targeted therapeutically.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 03/2015; DOI:10.1089/ars.2015.6322 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, tetracyclines, such as doxycycline, have become broadly used to control gene expression by virtue of the Tet-on/Tet-off systems. However, the wide range of direct effects of tetracycline use has not been fully appreciated. We show here that these antibiotics induce a mitonuclear protein imbalance through their effects on mitochondrial translation, an effect that likely reflects the evolutionary relationship between mitochondria and proteobacteria. Even at low concentrations, tetracyclines induce mitochondrial proteotoxic stress, leading to changes in nuclear gene expression and altered mitochondrial dynamics and function in commonly used cell types, as well as worms, flies, mice, and plants. Given that tetracyclines are so widely applied in research, scientists should be aware of their potentially confounding effects on experimental results. Furthermore, these results caution against extensive use of tetracyclines in livestock due to potential downstream impacts on the environment and human health. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.