Risk of Major Nonemergent Inpatient General Surgical Procedures in Patients on Long-term Dialysis
ABSTRACT Patients on long-term dialysis undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures are thought to have high rates of postoperative complications and death.
Retrospective cohort study.
Academic and private hospitals.
The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to select dialysis and nondialysis patients who had undergone nonemergent major general surgical procedures between 2005 and 2008. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of dialysis on 30-day surgical outcomes adjusted for age, race, sex, work relative value units, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and recent operations (within the past 30 days).
Patient morbidity, mortality, and failure-to-rescue rates.
Dialysis patients undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures were significantly more likely to develop pneumonia, unplanned intubation, ventilator dependence, and need for a reoperation within 30 days from the index procedure. Dialysis patients also had a higher risk of vascular complications and postoperative death. Older dialysis patients (aged ≥ 65 years) had a significantly higher postoperative mortality rate compared with their younger counterparts. Dialysis patients were significantly more likely to die after any complication occurred, and mortality rates were especially high following stroke, myocardial infarction, and reintubation. Abnormalities in potentially modifiable preoperative variables (blood urea nitrogen level, albumin level, and hematocrit) did not increase the risk of postoperative complications or death in dialysis patients compared with nondialysis patients.
Dialysis patients undergoing nonemergent general surgery have significantly elevated risks of postoperative complications and death, particularly if they are aged 65 years or older.
- Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 10/2012; DOI:10.1001/2013.jamasurg.363
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ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to adversely affect cardiac and vascular surgery outcomes. We examined the effect of preoperative renal insufficiency on postoperative outcomes after pancreatic resection. All patients who underwent pancreatic resection between January 2005 and July 2012 were identified. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Severe CKD (stages 4-5) was defined as eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m(2). Renal function also was analyzed using serum creatinine (sCr) dichotomized at 1.8 mg/dL. Primary outcomes were any complication, major complications, and respiratory failure. Multivariate models for each endpoint were constructed by including all variables with p value ≤0.10 on univariate analysis. There were 1,061 patients identified; 709 underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy, 307 distal pancreatectomy, and 45 central or total pancreatectomy. Median sCr value was 0.86 mg/dL (range 0.30 to 14.1 mg/dL). Eighteen patients (1.7%) had severe CKD and 31 (2.9%) had sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL. Complications occurred in 622 patients (58.6%), major complications in 198 (18.7%), and respiratory failure in 48 (4.5%). Both severe CKD and sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL were associated with any complication, major complications, and respiratory failure on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, severe CKD was associated with increased complications (odds ratio [OR] 5.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 25.5; p = 0.02) and respiratory failure (OR 6.1; 95% CI 1.8 to 20.5; p = 0.03), but not major complications. Using sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL as a surrogate marker for renal insufficiency, patients with sCr ≥ 1.8 mg/dL had increased risk of any complication (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 9.3; p = 0.01), major complications (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.04 to 4.8; p = 0.04), and respiratory failure (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.8 to 12.6; p = 0.002). Few patients with significant renal insufficiency are candidates for pancreatic resection. Severe CKD (stages 4-5) is associated with increased risk of complication and respiratory failure. Serum creatinine ≥1.8 mg/dL may serve as a useful marker of renal insufficiency and identifies patients at significantly increased risk of any complication, major complication, and respiratory failure after pancreatic resection.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 11/2013; 218(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.09.012
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ABSTRACT: Background. Chronic kidney disease affects 20 million US patients, with nearly 600,000 on dialysis. Long-term survival is limited and the risk of complex pancreatic surgery in this group is questionable. Previous studies are limited to case reports and small case series and a large database may help determine the true risk of pancreatic surgery in this population. Methods. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried (2005-2011) for patients who underwent pancreatic resection. Renal failure was defined as the clinical condition associated with rapid, steadily increasing azotemia (rise in BUN) and increasing creatinine above 3 mg/dL. Operative trends and short-term outcomes were reviewed for those with and without renal failure (RF). Results. In 18,533 patients, 28 had RF. There was no difference in wound infections, neurologic or cardiovascular complications. Compared to non-RF patients, those with RF had more unplanned intubation (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.85-12.89), bleeding requiring transfusion (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.37-14.21), septic shock (OR 8.86, 95% CI 3.75-20.91), higher 30-day mortality (21.4% versus 2.3%, P < 0.001) and longer hospital stay (23 versus 12 days, P < 0.001). Conclusions. RF patients have much higher morbidity and mortality after pancreatic resections and surgeons should consider this before proceeding.HPB Surgery 02/2014; 2014:938251. DOI:10.1155/2014/938251