ALXN4100TPO, a thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist, increases platelets, abrogates radiation-induced thrombocytopenia and affords significant survival benefit to lethally irradiated mice. This preliminary nonclinical safety study assessed effects of a single subcutaneous (sc) administration of ALXN4100TPO in CD2F1 mice randomized into naïve, control antibody (ALXN4200, 100 mg/kg), low (1 mg/kg), medium (10 mg/kg), or high (100 mg/kg) ALXN4100TPO doses. End points included clinical observations, body weight changes, hematology, histopathology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics by measuring platelet counts, and endogenous TPO (eTPO) levels. Salient findings were prominent increase in platelet counts and end cells of myeloid and lymphoid lineages; elevated megakaryopoiesis in bone marrow; and extramedullary hematopoiesis in spleen and liver. Serum ALXN4100TPO levels were maximum 24 hours after administration, with a half-life of 13 days. Endogenous TPO levels were elevated in 10 and 100 mg/kg ALXN4100TPO-treated groups. In conclusion, ALXN4100TPO (1-100 mg/kg, sc) treatment in CD2F1 mice resulted in profound pharmacological changes in the hematopoietic tissue; however, no life-threatening adverse events were observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Despite significant scientific advances over the past 60 years towards the development of a safe, nontoxic and effective radiation countermeasure for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), no drug has been approved by the US FDA. A radiation countermeasure to protect the population at large from the effects of lethal radiation exposure remains a significant unmet medical need of the US citizenry and, thus, has been recognized as a high priority area by the government.
This article reviews relevant publications and patents for recent developments and progress for potential ARS treatments in the area of radiation countermeasures. Emphasis is placed on the advanced development of existing agents since 2011 and new agents identified as radiation countermeasure for ARS during this period.
A number of promising radiation countermeasures are currently under development, seven of which have received US FDA investigational new drug status for clinical investigation. Four of these agents, CBLB502, Ex-RAD, HemaMax and OrbeShield, are progressing with large animal studies and clinical trials. G-CSF has high potential and well-documented therapeutic effects in countering myelosuppression and may receive full licensing approval by the US FDA in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The toxicity of parenterally administered vitamin E isomers, delta-tocotrienol (DT3) and gamma-tocotrienol (GT3), was evaluated in male and female CD2F1 mice. In an acute toxicity study, a single dose of DT3 or GT3 was administered subcutaneously in a dose range of 200 to 800 mg/kg. A mild to moderately severe dermatitis was observed clinically and microscopically in animals at the injection site at doses above 200 mg/kg. The severity of the reaction was reduced when the drug concentration was lowered. Neither drug produced detectable toxic effects in any other tissue at the doses tested. Based on histopathological analysis for both DT3 and GT3, and macroscopic observations of inflammation at the injection site, a dose of 300 mg/kg was selected as the lowest toxic dose in a 30-day toxicity study performed in male mice. At this dose, a mild skin irritation occurred at the injection site that recovered completely by the end of the experimental period. At a dose of 300 mg/kg of DT3 or GT3, no adverse effects were observed in any tissues or organs.
International Journal of Toxicology 10/2014; 33(6). DOI:10.1177/1091581814554929 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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