Greater energy reduction in 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) super-tasters as compared to non-tasters during a lifestyle intervention
ABSTRACT Little is known as to how 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status may influence changes in dietary intake in adults participating in a lifestyle intervention to assist with reducing weight. This secondary data analysis examined changes in energy, percent energy from macronutrients, and food group intake; physical activity; and body mass index (BMI) in super-tasters and non-tasters participating in two randomized controlled trials implementing a lifestyle obesity intervention. One trial focused on lowering energy density of the diet and the other trial focused on changing eating frequency. Overweight and obese participants (n=57) who completed measures of dietary intake, physical activity, and anthropometrics at 0 and 3months were included in the analyses. Taster status was determined at baseline: 46 non-tasters and 11 super-tasters. After controlling for condition assignment and baseline values, results indicated that a significantly greater reduction in energy intake occurred for super-tasters as compared to non-tasters (-1149±561kcal/day vs. -902±660kcal/day, p<0.05). No other significant differences in changes in dietary intake, physical activity, or BMI were found. These results suggest that in situations of reducing energy intake, overweight and obese super-tasters may be more successful than overweight and obese non-tasters. More research is needed to understand the influence of taster-status on dietary change during a lifestyle intervention and how this may impact weight loss.
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ABSTRACT: Taste is one of the main factors determining food choices. Differences in PROP bitter taste perception have been implicated in individual differences in food preferences and selection. The present study examined associations between, PROP phenotypes, self-reported food liking and TAS2R38 polymorphisms, the major gene implicated in PROP bitterness, in six different populations of the Caucasus and Central Asia, located along the ancient Silk Road. Differences in the distribution of PROP phenotypes across populations were detected, with a higher frequency of super tasters in Tajikistan (31.3%) and Armenia (39.0%) and a higher frequency of non tasters in Georgia (50.9%). While no relationships were observed between PROP phenotypes and food liking using standard statistical tests, we used an approach based on comparison of distance matrices derived from these data. The first matrix compared the food liking ratings of each population to all others pairwise using the Kruskal-Wallis test (at p<0.00063), and the second one compared the distribution of PROP phenotypes across all populations in a similar manner calculating the chi-square statistic as a distance measure. A strong correlation between the two matrices was found (Mantel test: r = 0.67, p-value = 0.03), suggesting that the pattern of food liking across populations was closely related to the distribution of PROP phenotypes. This same relationship was not observed when TAS2R38 genotypes were substituted for PROP phenotypes in this analysis. Our data suggest that a population-based approach utilizing distance matrices is a useful technique for detecting PROP-related differences in food liking and can be applied to other taste phenotypes.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91716. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091716 · 3.53 Impact Factor