In Vivo c-Met Pathway Inhibition Depletes Human Glioma Xenografts of Tumor-Propagating Stem-Like Cells 1 2

Department of Neurology, The Hugo W. Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger Inc and The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.
Translational oncology (Impact Factor: 3.4). 04/2013; 6(2):104-11. DOI: 10.1593/tlo.13127
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Solid malignancies contain sphere-forming stem-like cells that are particularly efficient in propagating tumors. Identifying agents that target these cells will advance the development of more effective therapies. Recent converging evidence shows that c-Met expression marks tumor-initiating stem-like cells and that c-Met signaling drives human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell stemness in vitro. However, the degree to which tumor-propagating stem-like cells depend on c-Met signaling in histologically complex cancers remains unknown. We examined the effects of in vivo c-Met pathway inhibitor therapy on tumor-propagating stem-like cells in human GBM xenografts. Animals bearing pre-established tumor xenografts expressing activated c-Met were treated with either neutralizing anti- hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) monoclonal antibody L2G7 or with the c-Met kinase inhibitor PF2341066 (Crizotinib). c-Met pathway inhibition inhibited tumor growth, depleted tumors of sphere-forming cells, and inhibited tumor expression of stem cell markers CD133, Sox2, Nanog, and Musashi. Withdrawing c-Met pathway inhibitor therapy resulted in a substantial rebound in stem cell marker expression concurrent with tumor recurrence. Cells derived from xenografts treated with anti-HGF in vivo were depleted of tumor-propagating potential as determined by in vivo serial dilution tumor-propagating assay. Furthermore, daughter xenografts that did form were 12-fold smaller than controls. These findings show that stem-like tumor-initiating cells are dynamically regulated by c-Met signaling in vivo and that c-Met pathway inhibitors can deplete tumors of their tumor-propagating stem-like cells.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common human primary brain malignancy and has a dismal prognosis. Aggressive treatments using maximal surgical resection, radiotherapy, and temozolomide result in median survival of only 14.6 months in patients with GBM. Numerous clinical approaches using small molecule inhibitors have shown disappointing results because of the genetic heterogeneity of GBM. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial biological process occurring in the early development stages of many species. However, cancer cells often obtain the ability to invade and metastasize through the EMT, which triggers the scattering of cells. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET signaling pathway is indicative of the EMT during both embryogenesis and the invasive growth of tumors, because HGF potently induces mesenchymal transition in epithelial-driven cells. Activation of MET signaling or co-overexpression of HGF and MET frequently represents aggressive growth and poor prognosis of various cancers, including GBM. Thus, efforts to treat cancers by inhibiting MET signaling using neutralizing antibodies or small molecule inhibitors have progressed during the last decade. In this review, we discuss HGF/MET signaling in the development of diseases, including cancers, as well as updates on MET inhibition therapy.
    OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2014; 7:1933-44. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S36582 · 1.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer stem-like cells represent poorly differentiated multipotent tumor-propagating cells that contribute disproportionately to therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Transcriptional mechanisms that control the phenotypic conversion of tumor cells lacking tumor-propagating potential to tumor-propagating stem-like cells remain obscure. Here we show that the reprogramming transcription factors Oct4 and Sox2 induce glioblastoma cells to become stem-like and tumor-propagating via a mechanism involving direct DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) promoter transactivation, resulting in global DNA methylation- and DNMT-dependent downregulation of multiple microRNAs (miRNAs). We show that one such downregulated miRNA, miRNA-148a, inhibits glioblastoma cell stem-like properties and tumor-propagating potential. This study identifies a novel and targetable molecular circuit by which glioma cell stemness and tumor-propagating capacity are regulated.Oncogene advance online publication, 20 October 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.334.
    Oncogene 10/2014; DOI:10.1038/onc.2014.334 · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECT High-grade gliomas are the most common form of adult brain cancer, and patients have a dismal survival rate despite aggressive therapeutic measures. Intratumoral hypoxia is thought to be a main contributor to tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of these tumors. Because hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is the major mediator of hypoxia-regulated cellular control, inhibition of this transcription factor may reduce glioblastoma growth. METHODS Using an orthotopic mouse model with U87-LucNeo cells, the authors used RNA interference to knock down HIF-1α in vivo. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) was packaged using a novel multifunctional surfactant, 1-(aminoethyl) iminobis[N-(oleicylcysteinylhistinyl-1-aminoethyl)propionamide] (EHCO), a nucleic acid carrier that facilitates cellular uptake and intracellular release of siRNA. Stereotactic injection was used to deliver siRNA locally through a guide-screw system, and delivery/uptake was verified by imaging of fluorescently labeled siRNA. Osmotic pumps were used for extended siRNA delivery to model a commonly used human intracranial drug-delivery technique, convection-enhanced delivery. RESULTS Mice receiving daily siRNA injections targeting HIF-1α had a 79% lower tumor volume after 50 days of treatment than the controls. Levels of the HIF-1 transcriptional targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), c-MET, and carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) and markers for cell growth (MIB-1 and microvascular density) were also significantly lower. Altering the carrier EHCO by adding polyethylene glycol significantly increased the efficacy of drug delivery and subsequent survival. CONCLUSIONS Treating glioblastoma with siRNA targeting HIF-1α in vivo can significantly reduce tumor growth and increase survival in an intracranial mouse model, a finding that has direct clinical implications.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2014; 122(2):1-11. DOI:10.3171/2014.10.JNS132363 · 3.23 Impact Factor


Available from