The Impact of HAART on the Respiratory Complications of HIV Infection: Longitudinal Trends in the MACS and WIHS Cohorts.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 03/2013; 8(3):e58812. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058812
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To review the incidence of respiratory conditions and their effect on mortality in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals prior to and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Two large observational cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study [MACS]) and women (Women's Interagency HIV Study [WIHS]), followed since 1984 and 1994, respectively.
Adjusted odds or hazards ratios for incident respiratory infections or non-infectious respiratory diagnoses, respectively, in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals in both the pre-HAART (MACS only) and HAART eras; and adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios for mortality in HIV-infected persons with lung disease during the HAART era.
Compared to HIV-uninfected participants, HIV-infected individuals had more incident respiratory infections both pre-HAART (MACS, odds ratio [adjusted-OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-2.7; p<0.001) and after HAART availability (MACS, adjusted-OR, 1.5; 95%CI 1.3-1.7; p<0.001; WIHS adjusted-OR, 2.2; 95%CI 1.8-2.7; p<0.001). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was more common in MACS HIV-infected vs. HIV-uninfected participants pre-HAART (hazard ratio [adjusted-HR] 2.9; 95%CI, 1.02-8.4; p = 0.046). After HAART availability, non-infectious lung diseases were not significantly more common in HIV-infected participants in either MACS or WIHS participants. HIV-infected participants in the HAART era with respiratory infections had an increased risk of death compared to those without infections (MACS adjusted-HR, 1.5; 95%CI, 1.3-1.7; p<0.001; WIHS adjusted-HR, 1.9; 95%CI, 1.5-2.4; p<0.001).
HIV infection remained a significant risk for infectious respiratory diseases after the introduction of HAART, and infectious respiratory diseases were associated with an increased risk of mortality.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Antiretroviral therapy (ART) represents a significant milestone in the battle against AIDS. However, we continue learning about HIV and confronting challenges 30 years after its discovery. HIV has cleverly tricked both the host immune system and ART. First, the many HIV subtypes and recombinant forms have different susceptibilities to antiretroviral drugs, which may represent an issue in countries where ART is just being introduced. Second, even under the suppressive pressures of ART, HIV still increases inflammatory mediators, deregulates apoptosis and proliferation, and induces oxidative stress in the host. Third, the preference of HIV for CXCR4 as a co-receptor may also have noxious outcomes, including potential malignancies. Furthermore, HIV still replicates cryptically in anatomical reservoirs, including the lung. HIV impairs bronchoalveolar T-lymphocyte and macrophage immune responses, rendering the lung susceptible to comorbidities. In addition, HIV-infected individuals are significantly more susceptible to long-term HIV-associated complications. This review focuses on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary arterial hypertension, and lung cancer. Almost two decades after the advent of highly active ART, we now know that HIV-infected individuals on ART live as long as the uninfected population. Fortunately, its availability is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, ART is not risk-free: the developed world is facing issues with antiretroviral drug toxicity, resistance, and drug-drug interactions, while developing countries are confronting issues with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Several aspects of the complexity of HIV persistence and challenges with ART are discussed, as well as suggestions for new avenues of research.
    Viral immunology 05/2014; · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy to control HIV infection has led to the emergence of an older HIV population who are at risk of chronic diseases. Through a comprehensive search of major databases, this Review summarises information about the associations between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and HIV infection. Asthma and COPD are more prevalent in HIV-infected populations; 16-20% of individuals with HIV infection have asthma or COPD, and poorly controlled HIV infection worsens spirometric and diffusing capacity measurements, and accelerates lung function decline by about 55-75 mL/year. Up to 21% of HIV-infected individuals have obstructive ventilatory defects and reduced diffusing capacity is seen in more than 50% of HIV-infected populations. Specific pharmacotherapy considerations are needed to care for HIV-infected populations with asthma or COPD-protease inhibitor regimens to treat HIV (such as ritonavir) can result in systemic accumulation of inhaled corticosteroids and might increase pneumonia risk, exacerbating the toxicity of this therapy. Therefore, it is essential for clinicians to have a heightened awareness of the increased risk and manifestations of obstructive lung diseases in HIV-infected patients and specific therapeutic considerations to care for this population. Screening spirometry and tests of diffusing capacity might be beneficial in HIV-infected people with a history of smoking or respiratory symptoms.
    The lancet. Respiratory medicine. 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many chronic pulmonary diseases, including those that are not primarily infectious in etiology, have some aspects of their pathogenesis that are influenced by infectious organisms. Microorganisms may contribute to chronic lung diseases, either directly (i.e., overt infection) or indirectly, via the amplification of inflammatory pathways that are critical to host defense. As techniques for detecting and characterizing microorganisms have advanced, investigations of both infecting and colonizing organisms have yielded new insights into mechanisms of pulmonary disease. In addition, changes in patterns of infection and microbial resistance have important implications for treatment. Examples of these infectious-pulmonary associations, including Haemophilus influenzae infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nontuberculous mycobacteria and bronchiectasis, and human immunodeficiency virus and obstructive lung disease, are reviewed.
    Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 08/2014; 11(Supplement 4):S221-S226.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 31, 2014