Decreased dietary fiber intake and structural alteration of gut microbiota in patients with advanced colorectal adenoma
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that diet is one of the most important environmental factors involved in the progression from advanced colorectal adenoma (A-CRA) to colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the possible effects of dietary fiber on the fecal microbiota of patients with A-CRA. DESIGN: Patients with a diagnosis of A-CRA by pathological examination were enrolled in the A-CRA group. Patients with no obvious abnormalities or histopathological changes were enrolled in the healthy control (HC) group. Dietary fiber intake was assessed in all patients. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were detected by gas chromatography. The fecal microbiota community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA. RESULTS: Lower dietary fiber patterns and consistently lower SCFA production were observed in the A-CRA group (n = 344). Principal component analysis showed distinct differences in the fecal microbiota communities of the 2 groups. Clostridium, Roseburia, and Eubacterium spp. were significantly more prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) than in the HC group (n = 47), whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were more prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) (all P < 0.05). Butyrate and butyrate-producing bacteria were more prevalent in a subgroup of HC subjects with a high fiber intake than in those in both the low-fiber HC subgroup and the high-fiber A-CRA subgroup (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A high-fiber dietary pattern and subsequent consistent production of SCFAs and healthy gut microbiota are associated with a reduced risk of A-CRA. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org as ChiCTR-TRC-00000123.
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ABSTRACT: Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) and precancerous colorectal adenoma (CRA) can detect curable disease. However, participation in colonoscopy and sensitivity of fecal heme for CRA are low.04/2015; 142. DOI:10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.04.010
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ABSTRACT: The human gut is home to a complex and diverse microbiota that contributes to the overall homeostasis of the host. Increasingly, the intestinal microbiota is recognized as an important player in human illness such as colorectal cancer (CRC), inflammatory bowel diseases, and obesity. CRC in itself is one of the major causes of cancer mortality in the Western World. The mechanisms by which bacteria contribute to CRC are complex and not fully understood, but increasing evidence suggests a link between the intestinal microbiota and CRC as well as diet and inflammation which are believed to play a role in carcinogenesis.. It is thought that the gut microbiota interact with dietary factors to promote chronic inflammation and CRC through direct influence on host cell physiology, cellular homeostasis, energy regulation, and/or metabolism of xenobiotics. This review provides an overview on the role of commensal gut microbiota in the development of human colorectal cancer and explores its association with diet and inflammation. Copyright © 2012, American Journal of Physiology- Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 03/2015; 308:G351-G363. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The etiology of colon cancer is complex, yet it is undoubtedly impacted by intestinal microbiota. Whether the contribution to colon carcinogenesis is generated through the presence of an overall dysbiosis or by specific pathogens is still a matter for debate. However, it is apparent that interactions between microbiota and the host are mediated by a variety of processes, including signaling cascades, the immune system, host metabolism, and regulation of gene transcription. To fully appreciate the role of microbiota in colon carcinogenesis, it will be necessary to expand efforts to define populations in niche environments, such as colonic crypts, explore cross talk between the host and the microbiota, and more completely define the metabolomic profile of the microbiota. These efforts must be pursued with appreciation that dietary substrates and other environmental modifiers mediate changes in the microbiota, as well as their metabolism and functional characteristics.Current Gastroenterology Reports 09/2013; 15(9):346. DOI:10.1007/s11894-013-0346-0