SIRT6 regulates TNF-α secretion through hydrolysis of long-chain fatty acyl lysine.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 04/2013; 496(7443):110-3. DOI: 10.1038/nature12038
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The Sir2 family of enzymes or sirtuins are known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases and have been implicated in the regulation of transcription, genome stability, metabolism and lifespan. However, four of the seven mammalian sirtuins have very weak deacetylase activity in vitro. Here we show that human SIRT6 efficiently removes long-chain fatty acyl groups, such as myristoyl, from lysine residues. The crystal structure of SIRT6 reveals a large hydrophobic pocket that can accommodate long-chain fatty acyl groups. We demonstrate further that SIRT6 promotes the secretion of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by removing the fatty acyl modification on K19 and K20 of TNF-α. Protein lysine fatty acylation has been known to occur in mammalian cells, but the function and regulatory mechanisms of this modification were unknown. Our data indicate that protein lysine fatty acylation is a novel mechanism that regulates protein secretion. The discovery of SIRT6 as an enzyme that controls protein lysine fatty acylation provides new opportunities to investigate the physiological function of a protein post-translational modification that has been little studied until now.

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    ABSTRACT: Sirtuins are a class of enzymes originally identified as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein lysine deacetylases. Among the seven mammalian sirtuins, SIRT1-7, only SIRT1-3 possess efficient deacetylase activity in vitro, whereas SIRT4-7 possess very weak in vitro deacetylase activity. Several sirtuins that exhibit weak deacetylase activity have recently been shown to possess more efficient activity for the removal other acyl lysine modifications, such as succinyl lysine and palmitoyl lysine. Here, we demonstrate that even the well-known deacetylase SIRT2 possesses efficient activity for the removal of long-chain fatty acyl groups. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for the removal of a myristoyl group is slightly higher than that for the removal of an acetyl group. The crystal structure of SIRT2 in complex with a thiomyristoyl peptide reveals that SIRT2 possesses a large hydrophobic pocket that can accommodate the myristoyl group. Comparison of the SIRT2 acyl pocket to those of SIRT1, SIRT3, and SIRT6 reveals that the acyl pockets of SIRT1-3 are highly similar, and to a lesser degree, similar to that of SIRT6. The efficient in vitro demyristoylase activity of SIRT2 suggests that this activity may be physiologically relevant and warrants future investigative studies.
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    ABSTRACT: N-Myristoyltransferase (NMT) modulates protein function through the attachment of the lipid myristate to the N terminus of target proteins, and is a promising drug target in eukaryotic parasites such as Leishmania donovani. Only a small number of NMT substrates have been characterized in Leishmania, and a global picture of N-myristoylation is lacking. Here, we use metabolic tagging with an alkyne-functionalized myristic acid mimetic in live parasites followed by downstream click chemistry and analysis to identify lipidated proteins in both the promastigote (extracellular) and amastigote (intracellular) life stages. Quantitative chemical proteomics is used to profile target engagement by NMT inhibitors, and to define the complement of N-myristoylated proteins. Our results provide new insight into the multiple pathways modulated by NMT and the pleiotropic effects of NMT inhibition. This work constitutes the first global experimental analysis of protein lipidation in Leishmania, and reveals the extent of NMT-related biology yet to be explored for this neglected human pathogen. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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