Eight Weeks of Exercise Training Improves Fitness Measures in Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals in Residential Treatment

From the Exercise Physiology Research Laboratory (BAD, TWS, MA, and CBC), David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Integrated Substance Abuse Programs (BAD, JC, JP, LM, DD, and RAR), Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles.
Journal of Addiction Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.76). 01/2011; 7(2):122-8. DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0b013e318282475e
Source: PubMed


: Physical exercise has been shown to benefit diverse medical and behavioral conditions. This study assesses the feasibility and efficacy of an 8-week endurance and resistance training program on fitness measures in individuals undergoing residential treatment for methamphetamine (MA) dependence.
: A total of 39 MA-dependent individuals were randomized to 3 days/week of exercise training (ET, n = 15) or health education without training (equal attention [EA], n = 14) over 8 weeks. Aerobic performance ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2max) was measured by indirect calorimetry, body composition by skinfolds, muscle strength by 1-repetition maximum (1-RM), and endurance at 85% of 1-RM for both leg press (LP) and chest press (CP).
: A total of 29 individuals completed the study for a 74% adherence rate. Baseline characteristics (mean ± SD) were balanced between groups: age 31 ± 7 years; height = 1.74 ± 0.07 m; weight 82.0 ± 15.0 kg. The ET group significantly improved (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2max by 0.63 ± 0.22 L/min (+21%), LP strength by 24.4 ± 5.6 kg (+40%), and CP strength by 20.6 ± 5.7 kg (+49%). The ET group increased LP and CP endurance by 120% and 96%, respectively and showed significant reductions in body weight of 1.7 ± 2.4 kg (-2%), % body fat of 2.8 ± 1.3% (-15%), and fat weight 2.8 ± 1.8 kg (-18%). All changes were significant (P < 0.001) for ET, and no changes were seen for the EA group.
: Individuals recovering from MA dependence showed substantial improvements in aerobic exercise performance, muscle strength and endurance, and body composition with ET. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of an ET intervention in these participants and also show excellent responsiveness to the exercise stimulus resulting in physiological changes that might enhance recovery from drug dependency.

Download full-text


Available from: Marlon Abrazado, May 20, 2014
1 Follower
26 Reads
    • "Multiple exercise-based treatments for SUDs studies were conducted throughout the 1970s and 1980s. These early studies tended to prescribe more intense exercise (Gary & Guthrie 1972) or playing sports (Tsukue & Shohoji 1981; Burling et al. 1992), whereas recent studies have prescribed moderate to vigorous exercise (Brown et al. 2009; 2010; 2014; Trivedi et al. 2011; Dolezal et al. 2013). Moreover, most prior studies only focused on aerobic or strength training despite public health recommendations to regularly engage in three forms of exercise (aerobic, strength, flexibility) to achieve optimal health (Haskell et al. 2007), as well as evidence that all three forms of exercise are useful adjunctive SUD treatments (Bock et al. 2012; Ussher et al. 2012; Zschucke et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2014; Linke & Ussher 2015). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are prevalent among veteran populations. Adjunctive treatments for SUDs are warranted for many reasons, including high relapse rates. Physical exercise has broad health benefits as well as mood-enhancing, anxiolytic, and withdrawal-reducing effects, but veterans with SUDs report low rates of regular exercise. Evaluating exercise-based interventions that incorporate evidence-based behavior change strategies tailored to meet the unique needs of veterans with SUDs is warranted. This article describes the formative research conducted to evaluate the following information among veterans receiving treatment for SUDs: (1) interest in an adjunctive exercise program to supplement their current SUD treatment; and (2) exercise program design considerations. A survey and small group interviews were conducted to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. Results suggested that veterans with SUDs are interested in exercise, and participants provided perceptive suggestions for modifying an existing evidence-based program. These findings will be used to design an exercise-based treatment program tailored specifically for veterans with SUDs.
    Journal of psychoactive drugs 06/2015; 47(3):1-10. DOI:10.1080/02791072.2015.1047915 · 1.10 Impact Factor
    • "The 63% adherence rate associated with Active Game Play (i.e., about 3 of the recommended 5 weekly sessions) suggests that there is still considerable room for improvement. Some studies have devised targeted adjunctive interventions to promote exercise adherence, including contingency management (Dolezal et al., 2013; Weinstock et al., 2008) and a comprehensive behavioral intervention (Stoutenberg et al., 2012; Trivedi et al., 2011). Studies of exercise in substance use treatment have generally lacked rigorous control conditions (Brown et al., 2010; Sinyor et al., 1982; Weinstock et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined exercise as a substance use disorder treatment. This pilot study investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an exercise intervention comprising the Wii Fit PlusTM and of a time-and-attention sedentary control comprising WiiTM videogames. We also explored their impact on physical activity levels, substance use, and psychological wellness. Twenty-nine methadone-maintained patients enrolled in an 8-week trial were randomly assigned to either Active Game Play (Wii Fit PlusTM videogames involving physical exertion) or Sedentary Game Play (WiiTM videogames played while sitting). Participants had high satisfaction and study completion rates. Active Game Play participants reported greater physical activity outside the intervention than Sedentary Game Play participants despite no such differences at baseline. Substance use decreased and stress and optimism improved in both conditions. Active Game Play is a feasible and acceptable exercise intervention, and Sedentary Game Play is a promising time-and-attention control. Further investigations of these interventions are warranted.
    Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 10/2014; 47(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jsat.2014.05.007 · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects a healthy autonomic nervous system and is increased with physical training. Methamphetamine dependence (MD) causes autonomic dysfunction and diminished HRV. We compared recently abstinent MD participants with age-matched, drug free controls (DF) and also investigated whether HRV can be improved with exercise training in the MD participants. In 50 participants (MD=28; DF=22) resting heart rate (R-R intervals) was recorded over 5 min while seated using a monitor affixed to a chest strap. Previously reported time-domain (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency-domain (LFnu, HFnu, LF/HF) parameters of HRV were calculated with customized software. MD were randomized to thrice weekly exercise training (ME=14) or equal attention without training (MC=14) over 8 weeks. Groups were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. Participant characteristics were matched between groups: age 33±6 years; body mass 82.7±12 kg, BMI 26.8±4.1 kg•min, mean±SD. Compared with DF, the MD group had significantly higher resting heart rate (P<0.05), LFnu, and LF/HF (P<0.001) as well as lower SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50 and HFnu (all P<0.001). At randomization, HRV indices were similar between ME and MC groups. However, after training, the ME group significantly (all P<0.001) increased SDNN (+14.7±2.0 ms, +34%), RMSSD (+19.6±4.2 ms, +63%), pNN50 (+22.6±2.7%, +173%), HFnu (+14.2±1.9, +60%) and decreased HR (-5.2±1.1 beats·min, -7%), LFnu (-9.6±1.5, -16%) and LF/HF (-0.7±0.3, -19%). These measures did not change from baseline in the MC group. HRV, based on several conventional indices, was diminished in recently abstinent, methamphetamine dependent individuals. Moreover, physical training yielded a marked increase of HRV representing increased vagal modulation or improved autonomic balance.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise 10/2013; 46(6). DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000201 · 3.98 Impact Factor
Show more