Objective To prospectively determine the oncological adequacy of robotic assisted video-endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy (RAVEIL). Patients and Methods Patients with T1-3N0 penile cancer were enrolled into a prospective phase I trial at a tertiary care institution from March 2010 to January 2012. All patients underwent an initial RAVEIL approach. Verification of adequacy of dissection was performed by an independent surgeon via a separate open incision at the conclusion of the RAVEIL procedure. Out of 10 patients, if more than two superficial inguinal fields with ≥2 nodes or more than four with ≥1 node remained within the superficial dissection field, the study would not proceed to phase II. Results Of 10 enrolled patients two had inguinal metastases and all positive nodes were detected by RAVEIL. The remaining eight patients had no metastases, with a mean of nine (range 5-21) left and nine (range 6-17) right nodes removed. One inguinal field RAVEIL was converted to an open dissection. The verifying surgeon confirmed that 18 of 19 inguinal fields (94.7% in nine patients) had an adequate dissection. Two benign nodes were found just beneath Scarpa's fascia above the inguinal dissection field. Limitations of the study include an inability to determine decisively what specific wound complications were related to RAVEIL because of the protocol-specified creation of a small inguinal incision for verification of adequate dissection. Conclusion RAVEIL allowed adequate staging of disease in the inguinal region among patients with penile cancer at risk for inguinal metastases.
"Matin et al  performed a thorough evaluation of the adequacy of a robotic node dissection by subsequently opening the incision and having a separate oncologist look for unretrieved residual nodal tissue. They described ten such cases. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inguinal lymphadenectomy is the treatment of choice for patients with penile cancer and inguinal lymph node metastases. We describe the performance of the robotic bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy technique without repositioning the robot in a patient with penile carcinoma and high risk for nodal metastases and no palpable lymph nodes.
A 64-year-old male patient was diagnosed with penile cancer (TNM: T3 N 0 M 0) and underwent a total penectomy with perineal urethrostomy. We performed a robotic bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy four weeks after the penectomy.
The entire procedure was performed with the robot-assisted technique. The operative time, median estimated blood loss, and hospital stay was 360 min, 100 ml (50 ml in the right side and 150 ml in the left side), and three days, respectively. Metastatic nodes were present in both inguinal regions, with a yield of 19 lymph nodes on the right and 14 on the left. The patient presented with a left-side lymphocele that was drained at follow-up. No other complications were reported.
Robotic bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy secondary to penile cancer is feasible, safe, and provides a good performance. Prospective studies are required to include a larger number of patients and long-term monitoring to assess the results of this procedure in comparison with open and laparoscopic techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant tumours of the penis are rare tumours. The objective of this article is to propose guidelines for the management of these tumours.
A review of the literature was performed by selecting articles on penile cancer published in PUBMED.
The most common histological type is squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical examination of the penis is usually sufficient to assess local extension of the primary tumour, but it can be completed by MRI to assess deeper extension. Inguinal lymph nodes must be systematically palpated on both sides to assess regional extension. In the presence of palpable lymph nodes, aspiration cytology is recommended in combination with abdomen and pelvis computed tomography and (18)F-FDG PET-CT. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is recommended in the case of penile cancer at high risk of lymph node extension with no palpable lymph nodes. Treatment of the primary tumour is usually surgical. It must be as conservative as possible while ensuring negative surgical margins. Brachytherapy or local treatment (laser, cytotoxic cream, etc.) can be proposed in some cases. Bilateral lymph node chains must be systematically treated at the time of diagnosis of the disease. Inguinal lymphadenectomy alone has a curative role in patients with metastatic invasion of a single lymph node (stage pN1). In the case of more extensive lymph node involvement, multimodal management combining chemotherapy, surgery and possibly radiotherapy, must be considered.
The treatment of penile cancer is usually surgical possibly in combination with chemotherapy in the presence of lymph node extension. The main prognostic factor is lymph node involvement, requiring appropriate management right from the time of diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To audit the management and outcome of penile cancer in a tertiary university teaching hospital, comparing our results to international best practice and published guidelines.
The Hospital Inpatient Enquiry database of the Mercy University Hospital was interrogated for penile cancer patients treated between 2001 and 2012. Data relating to presentation, local treatment, histology, lymph-node management, outcome and survival was recorded. Data were analysed using the Log Rank test, with significance defined as P ≤ 0.05.
Twenty-five patients were identified with a median age of 61 years. The majority of cases at presentation were ≥T2 (54%) and intermediate to high grade (76%). The median follow-up of patients was 3.75 years (range 9 months–10 years). Overall survival was 76% (n = 19), these patients are all disease free to date. Disease-specific survival was 85% at 10 years. Penile cancer related mortality was 8% (n = 2), 4 patients (16%) died of non-penile cancer related causes. Twenty-two patients (88%) had surgery and 3 patients (12%) had radiotherapy. Based on EAU guidelines inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) was performed in 64% (n = 16) of cases with 44% (n = 7) of these patients requiring concurrent bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Fifty percent (n = 8) of ILNDs showed metastatic disease. Ten year disease-specific survival for node negative versus node positive disease is 100% versus 57%. Thirty-two percent (n = 8) of patients received chemotherapy.
Penile cancer is a rare oncological condition that often requires bilateral inguinal ± pelvic lymph node dissection and should be managed according to published guidelines, in specialist centres in order to maximize outcomes.
The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 02/2014; 13(4). DOI:10.1016/j.surge.2014.01.007 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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