Effects of maternal smokeless tobacco use on selected pregnancy outcomes in Alaska Native women: a case-control study

Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica (Impact Factor: 2.43). 03/2013; 92(6). DOI: 10.1111/aogs.12124
Source: PubMed


OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential effects of prenatal smokeless tobacco use on selected birth outcomes. DESIGN: A population-based, case-control study using a retrospective medical record review. POPULATION: Singleton deliveries 1997-2005 to Alaska Native women residing in western Alaska. METHODS: Hospital discharge codes were used to identify potential case deliveries and a random control sample. Data on tobacco use and confirmation of pregnancy outcomes were abstracted from medical records for 1123 deliveries. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between tobacco use and pregnancy outcomes. Adjusted odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), and p-values were calculated. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Preterm delivery, pregnancy-associated hypertension, and placental abruption. RESULTS: In unadjusted analysis, smokeless tobacco use was not significantly associated with preterm delivery (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.97-2.15). After adjustment for parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and maternal age, the point estimate was attenuated and remained non-significant. No significant associations were observed between smokeless tobacco use and pregnancy-associated hypertension (adjusted OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.56-1.51) or placental abruption (adjusted OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.53-2.33). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal smokeless tobacco use does not appear to reduce risk of pregnancy-associated hypertension or to substantially increase risk of abruption. An association between smokeless tobacco and preterm delivery could not be ruled out. Components in tobacco other than nicotine likely play a major role in decreased pre-eclampsia risk in smokers. Nicotine adversely affects fetal neurodevelopment and our results should not be construed to mean that smokeless tobacco use is safe during pregnancy.

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