Mechanistic perspective on the relationship between pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and inflammation
JM USDA HNRC, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Nutrition Reviews
(Impact Factor: 6.08).
04/2013; 71(4):239-44. DOI: 10.1111/nure.12014
A variety of inflammatory disease conditions have been found to be associated with low levels of plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6 , without any indication of a lower dietary intake of vitamin B6 , excessive catabolism of the vitamin, or congenital defects in its metabolism. The present review was conducted to examine the existing literature in this regard. Current evidence suggests that the inverse association between plasma PLP and inflammation may be the result of mobilization of this coenzyme to the site of inflammation, for use by the PLP-dependent enzymes of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, metabolism of the immunomodulatory sphingolipids, ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, and for serine hydroxymethylase for immune cell proliferation.
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- "Low plasma levels of the active metabolite of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) are a common feature of inflammation and the CDR (Paul et al., 2013). PLP is a cofactor in 4 reactions in the dioxygenase (IDO) pathway of tryptophan metabolism, after the formation of kynurenine, leading to the synthesis of quinolinic acid and NAD+ and NADP+. "
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ABSTRACT: The cell danger response (CDR) is the evolutionarily conserved metabolic response that protects cells and hosts from harm. It is triggered by encounters with chemical, physical, or biological threats that exceed the cellular capacity for homeostasis. The resulting metabolic mismatch between available resources and functional capacity produces a cascade of changes in cellular electron flow, oxygen consumption, redox, membrane fluidity, lipid dynamics, bioenergetics, carbon and sulfur resource allocation, protein folding and aggregation, vitamin availability, metal homeostasis, indole, pterin, 1-carbon and polyamine metabolism, and polymer formation. The first wave of danger signals consists of the release of metabolic intermediates like ATP and ADP, Krebs cycle intermediates, oxygen, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and is sustained by purinergic signaling. After the danger has been eliminated or neutralized, a choreographed sequence of anti-inflammatory and regenerative pathways is activated to reverse the CDR and to heal. When the CDR persists abnormally, whole body metabolism and the gut microbiome are disturbed, the collective performance of multiple organ systems is impaired, behavior is changed, and chronic disease results. Metabolic memory of past stress encounters is stored in the form of altered mitochondrial and cellular macromolecule content, resulting in an increase in functional reserve capacity through a process known as mitocellular hormesis. The systemic form of the CDR, and its magnified form, the purinergic life-threat response (PLTR), are under direct control by ancient pathways in the brain that are ultimately coordinated by centers in the brainstem. Chemosensory integration of whole body metabolism occurs in the brainstem and is a prerequisite for normal brain, motor, vestibular, sensory, social, and speech development. An understanding of the CDR permits us to reframe old concepts of pathogenesis for a broad array of chronic, developmental, autoimmune, and degenerative disorders. These disorders include autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), asthma, atopy, gluten and many other food and chemical sensitivity syndromes, emphysema, Tourette's syndrome, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), traumatic brain injury (TBI), epilepsy, suicidal ideation, organ transplant biology, diabetes, kidney, liver, and heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and autoimmune disorders like lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis.
Mitochondrion 08/2013; 16. DOI:10.1016/j.mito.2013.08.006 · 3.25 Impact Factor
Available from: jn.nutrition.org
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin B-6 deficiency is associated with impaired tryptophan metabolism because of the coenzyme role of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) for kynureninase and kynurenine aminotransferase. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we developed a mathematical model of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway. The model includes mammalian data on enzyme kinetics and tryptophan transport from the intestinal lumen to liver, muscle, and brain. Regulatory mechanisms and inhibition of relevant enzymes were included. We simulated the effects of graded reduction in cellular PLP concentration, tryptophan loads and induction of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) on metabolite profiles and urinary excretion. The model predictions matched experimental data and provided clarification of the response of metabolites in various extents of vitamin B-6 deficiency. We found that moderate deficiency yielded increased 3-hydroxykynurenine and a decrease in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. More severe deficiency also yielded an increase in kynurenine and xanthurenic acid and more pronounced effects on the other metabolites. Tryptophan load simulations with and without vitamin B-6 deficiency showed altered metabolite concentrations consistent with published data. Induction of TDO caused an increase in all metabolites, and TDO induction together with a simulated vitamin B-6 deficiency, as has been reported in oral contraceptive users, yielded increases in kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acid and decreases in kynurenic acid and anthranilic acid. These results show that the model successfully simulated tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway and can be used to complement experimental investigations.
Journal of Nutrition 07/2013; 143(9). DOI:10.3945/jn.113.174599 · 3.88 Impact Factor
Available from: Øivind Midttun
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ABSTRACT: Suboptimal vitamin B-6 status, as reflected by low plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentration, is associated with increased risk of vascular disease. PLP plays many roles, including in one-carbon metabolism for the acquisition and transfer of carbon units and in the transsulfuration pathway. PLP also serves as a coenzyme in the catabolism of tryptophan. We hypothesize that the pattern of these metabolites can provide information reflecting the functional impact of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency. We report here the concentration of major constituents of one-carbon metabolic processes and the tryptophan catabolic pathway in plasma from 23 healthy men and women before and after a 28-d controlled dietary vitamin B-6 restriction (<0.35 mg/d). liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the compounds relevant to one-carbon metabolism showed that vitamin B-6 restriction yielded increased cystathionine (53% pre- and 76% postprandial; P < 0.0001) and serine (12% preprandial; P < 0.05), and lower creatine (40% pre- and postprandial; P < 0.0001), creatinine (9% postprandial; P < 0.05), and dimethylglycine (16% postprandial; P < 0.05) relative to the vitamin B-6-adequate state. In the tryptophan pathway, vitamin B-6 restriction yielded lower kynurenic acid (22% pre- and 20% postprandial; P < 0.01) and higher 3-hydroxykynurenine (39% pre- and 34% postprandial; P < 0.01). Multivariate ANOVA analysis showed a significant global effect of vitamin B-6 restriction and multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis supported this conclusion. Thus, plasma concentrations of creatine, cystathionine, kynurenic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine jointly reveal effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on the profiles of one-carbon and tryptophan metabolites and serve as biomarkers of functional effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency.
Journal of Nutrition 08/2013; 143(11). DOI:10.3945/jn.113.180588 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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