C-Myc phosphorylation by PKCζ represses prostate tumorigenesis
ABSTRACT Studies showing reduced PKCζ expression or enzymatic activity in different types of human cancers support the clinical relevance of PKCζ as a tumor suppressor. However, the in vivo role of PKCζ and its mechanisms of action in prostate cancer remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the genetic inactivation of PKCζ in mice results in invasive prostate carcinoma in vivo in the context of phosphatase and tensin homolog deficiency. Bioinformatic analysis of human prostate cancer gene-expression sets revealed increased c-Myc transcriptional activity in PKCζ-inactive cells, which correlated with increased cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. Interestingly, PKCζ knockdown or the overexpression of a kinase-inactive mutant resulted in enhanced cell proliferation and invasion in vitro through increased c-Myc mRNA and protein levels and decreased Ser-373 phosphorylation of c-Myc. Analysis of prostate cancer samples demonstrated increased expression and decreased phosphorylation of c-Myc at Ser-373 in PKCζ knockout tumors. In vivo xenograft studies revealed that c-Myc phosphorylation by PKCζ is a critical event in the control of metastasis. Collectively, these results establish PKCζ as an important tumor suppressor and regulator of c-Myc function in prostate cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Atypical protein kinase C isoforms are serine threonine kinases involved in various pathological conditions. In recent years, the PKCζ isoform has emerged as an important regulator of multiple cellular processes operating in cancer. In this review, we will focus on the PKCζ isoform as an oxidative-sensing kinase involved in cancer-related inflammation and chemoresistance. We will discuss its nuclear localization and its possible pivotal role in connecting inflammation with drug resistance.Frontiers in Oncology 09/2013; 3:232. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2013.00232
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ABSTRACT: Since their discovery in the late 1970s, protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes represent one of the most extensively studied signaling kinases. PKCs signal through multiple pathways and control the expression of genes relevant for cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis and metastatic dissemination. Despite the vast amount of information concerning the mechanisms that control PKC activation and function in cellular models, the relevance of individual PKC isozymes in the progression of human cancer is still a matter of controversy. Although the expression of PKC isozymes is altered in multiple cancer types, the causal relationship between such changes and the initiation and progression of the disease remains poorly defined. Animal models developed in the last years helped to better understand the involvement of individual PKCs in various cancer types and in the context of specific oncogenic alterations. Unraveling the enormous complexity in the mechanisms by which PKC isozymes have an impact on tumorigenesis and metastasis is key for reassessing their potential as pharmacological targets for cancer treatment.Oncogene advance online publication, 16 December 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.524.Oncogene 12/2013; 33(45). DOI:10.1038/onc.2013.524 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exemplified by cancer cells' preference for glycolysis, for example, the Warburg effect, altered metabolism in tumorigenesis has emerged as an important aspect of cancer in the past 10-20 years. Whether due to changes in regulatory tumor suppressors/oncogenes or by acting as metabolic oncogenes themselves, enzymes involved in the complex network of metabolic pathways are being studied to understand their role and assess their utility as therapeutic targets. Conversion of glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate into phosphohydroxypyruvate by the enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH)-a rate-limiting step in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to serine-represents one such mechanism. Forgotten since classic animal studies in the 1980s, the role of PHGDH as a potential therapeutic target and putative metabolic oncogene has recently reemerged following publication of two prominent papers near-simultaneously in 2011. Since that time, numerous studies and a host of metabolic explanations have been put forward in an attempt to understand the results observed. In this paper, I review the historic progression of our understanding of the role of PHGDH in cancer from the early work by Snell through its reemergence and rise to prominence, culminating in an assessment of subsequent work and what it means for the future of PHGDH.Journal of Oncology 12/2014; 2014:524101. DOI:10.1155/2014/524101