Brain lesions to the white matter in peritrigonal regions, periventricular leukomalacia, in children who were born prematurely represent an important model for studying limitations on brain development. The lesional pattern is of early origin and bilateral, that constrains the compensatory potential of the brain. We suggest that (i) topography and severity of periventricular lesions may have a long-term predictive value for cognitive and social capabilities in preterm birth survivors; and (ii) periventricular lesions may impact cognitive and social functions by affecting brain connectivity, and thereby, the dissociable neural networks underpinning these functions. A further pathway to explore is the relationship between cerebral palsy and cognitive outcome. Restrictions caused by motor disability may affect active exploration of surrounding and social participation that may in turn differentially impinge on cognitive development and social cognition. As an outline for future research, we underscore sex differences, as the sex of a preterm newborn may shape the mechanisms by which the developing brain is affected.
"Schizophrenia occurs 1.4 times more frequently in males than females, and the onset of disease is earlier in men (Picchioni and Murray 2007). Males are at a 14–20% higher risk for premature birth and of its complications in the brain development and cognition (Pavlova and Krägeloh-Mann 2013). Males are more often affected by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD (Bloom et al. 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body motion is a rich source of information for social interaction, and visual biological motion processing may be considered
as a hallmark of social cognition. It is unclear, however, whether the social brain is sex specific. Here we assess sex impact
on the magnetoencephalographic (MEG) cortical response to point-light human locomotion. Sex differences in the cortical MEG
response to biological motion occur mostly over the right brain hemisphere. At early latencies, females exhibit a greater
activation than males over the right parietal, left temporal, and right temporal cortex, a core of the social brain. At later
latencies, the boosts of activation are greater in males over the right frontal and occipital cortices. The findings deliver
the first evidence for gender-dependent modes in the time course and topography of the neural circuitry underpinning visual
processing of biological motion. The outcome represents a framework for studying sex differences in the social brain in psychiatric
and neurodevelopmental disorders.
"Due to its rapidly developing and complex characteristics, the preterm brain is vulnerable to exogenous and endogenous insults in the third trimester of gestation (Volpe, 2009), during which the volume of the whole brain more than doubles and the volume of cortical grey matter (GM) increases approximately four-fold (Huppi et al., 1998). Therefore , attention has increasingly focused on the quality of life of survivors, who are at greater risk of brain damage and consequent neurological disorders, neuropsychological, and behavioural impairments in childhood and later in life (Ball et al., 2013; Beauchamp et al., 2008; Bjuland et al., 2013; Johnson and Marlow, 2011; Ment et al., 2009; Pavlova and Krageloh-Mann, 2013; Taylor et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT) birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks) and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised) and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001). WM volume in posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix and GM volume in temporal gyri bilaterally, accounted for 21% of the variance of executive function (F = 9.9, p < 0.0001) and WM in the posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix alone accounted for 17% of the variance of total non-verbal memory scores (F = 9.9, p < 0.0001). These results reveal that VPT birth continues to be associated with altered structural brain anatomy in early adult life, although it remains to be ascertained whether these changes reflect neurodevelopmental impairments or long lasting structural alterations due to prematurity. GM and WM alterations correlate with length of gestation and mediate cognitive outcome.
"For Down syndrome, the reported sex ratio is 1.28 , and for fragile X syndrome, the ratio is 2 . Males are at a 14–20% higher risk for premature birth  and of its complications in the brain development and cognition . On the other hand, depression is approximately twice as common in females as in males . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body language reading is of significance for daily life social cognition and successful social interaction, and constitutes a core component of social competence. Yet it is unclear whether our ability for body language reading is gender specific. In the present work, female and male observers had to visually recognize emotions through point-light human locomotion performed by female and male actors with different emotional expressions. For subtle emotional expressions only, males surpass females in recognition accuracy and readiness to respond to happy walking portrayed by female actors, whereas females exhibit a tendency to be better in recognition of hostile angry locomotion expressed by male actors. In contrast to widespread beliefs about female superiority in social cognition, the findings suggest that gender effects in recognition of emotions from human locomotion are modulated by emotional content of actions and opposite actor gender. In a nutshell, the study makes a further step in elucidation of gender impact on body language reading and on neurodevelopmental and psychiatric deficits in visual social cognition.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e81716. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081716 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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