Expanding Awareness of Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy.
ABSTRACT Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (≥200 mg/day). Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group) is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118) were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card) were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74). Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.
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ABSTRACT: A healthy diet during pregnancy is essential for normal growth and development of the foetus. Pregnant women may obtain nutrition information from a number of sources but evidence regarding the adequacy and extent of this information is sparse. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify sources of nutrition information accessed by pregnant women, their perceived needs for nutrition education, the perceptions of healthcare providers about nutrition education in pregnancy, and to assess the effectiveness of public health programs that aim to improve nutritional practices. The Scopus data base was searched during January, 2013 and in February 2014 to access both qualitative and quantitative studies published between 2002 and 2014 which focused on healthy pregnant women and their healthcare providers in developed countries. Articles were excluded if they focused on the needs of women with medical conditions, including obesity, gestational diabetes or malnutrition. Of 506 articles identified by the search terms, 25 articles were deemed to be eligible for inclusion. Generally, women were not receiving adequate nutrition education during pregnancy. Although healthcare practitioners perceived nutrition education to be important, barriers to providing education to clients included lack of time, lack of resources and lack of relevant training. Further well designed studies are needed to identify the most effective nutrition education strategies to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviours for women during antenatal care.Maternal and Child Health Journal 04/2014; 18(10). · 2.24 Impact Factor
Nutrients 2013, 5, 1098-1109; doi:10.3390/nu5041098
Expanding Awareness of Docosahexaenoic Acid
Rebecca Emmett 1, Shann Akkersdyk 1, Heather Yeatman 1 and Barbara J. Meyer 1,2,*
1 School of Health Sciences, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong,
NSW 2522, Australia; E-Mails: firstname.lastname@example.org (R.E.); email@example.com (S.A.);
2 Metabolic Research Centre, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong,
NSW 2522, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;
Tel.: +61-4221-3459; Fax: +61-4221-5945.
Received: 7 February 2013; in revised form: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 25 March 2013 /
Published: 2 April 2013
Abstract: Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (≥200 mg/day). Pregnant women in Australia are not
receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy
education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for
readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire
for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a
control group) is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing
DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118) were
recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item
questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card) were
provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second
questionnaire (25-item, N = 74). Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data
were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the
materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food
sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they
would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group,
this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and
nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive
influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods.
Nutrients 2013, 5
This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such
materials could have on Australian pregnant women.
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; omega-3; pregnancy; fish; education
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC n-3 PUFA)
essential for neural, visual and cognitive development of the growing fetus [1,2]. For this reason, DHA
consumption during pregnancy is important and women should be supplied with adequate DHA
education during gestation . There are many nutrients of particular importance during pregnancy,
yet the main focus appears to be predominately on folate, iron and calcium . The importance and
health benefits of DHA are rarely communicated to pregnant women in Australia  and they have
been found to lack knowledge of DHA and consume suboptimal levels during pregnancy [3,4].
We have shown that the median intake of total LC n-3 PUFA in the Australian female population is
120 mg per day . The consensus statement for dietary fats and the International Society for the
Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL) have developed specific recommendations for DHA alone,
using scientific evidence that is based on the physiological effects of DHA, and they suggest pregnant
women consume at least 200 mg/300 mg (respectively) of DHA per day [6,7]. The Omega-3 Centre of
Australia and New Zealand also recommend 200 mg DHA per day during pregnancy and lactation .
In the third trimester of pregnancy the fetus alone accumulates 67 mg of DHA per day . Several
studies suggest inadequate DHA intake is associated with decreased maternal DHA status, as the fetus
takes what it needs from maternal stores [2,10]. Pregnant women in Australia are only consuming an
average of 99 mg DHA/day . This falls short of the 200–300 mg DHA per day as recommended by
the European consensus, ISSFAL and the Omega-3 Centre [6–8].
Very few pregnancy education materials exist on LC n-3 PUFAs, and of those that do, the focus is
on safe fish consumption [3,11]. Food Standards Australia and New Zealand have an information card
which provides advice on healthy fish consumption for pregnancy, but does not refer specifically to
DHA or other food sources of LC n-3 PUFAs . There are currently no pregnancy education materials
available in Australia which provide information on the health benefits and importance of DHA for
pregnancy or DHA food sources other than fish . Butler et al.  identified that pregnant women
feel they are only given information on what foods to avoid, however they would also like to know
what foods to eat to obtain optimal health benefits for their babies. Therefore, information on the
health benefits, importance and sources of DHA during pregnancy is warranted.
In considering the development of a communication tool that delivers scientific nutritional
knowledge, the focus should be how to translate the message into a form that can be easily read and
understood by the general population with varying education levels . There are multiple ways to
communicate important information, namely television advertising, websites, interactive computer
games and more traditional print media. Research carried out in the area of delivering complex
nutritional information, such as a recommended fat intake, has found that using a one page handout
greatly improved participants‘ understanding of different types of fats . Pamphlets have also been
Nutrients 2013, 5
identified as a preferred channel for receiving information and pregnant women want practical
information in language they can understand .
The aims of this study were to: (i) design DHA educational materials in the form of a pamphlet and
wallet sized shopping card; (ii) assess the appropriateness of the design and the ability of the materials
to deliver a clear message; (iii) assess women‘s desire to receive the materials during pregnancy; and
(iv) evaluate the usefulness of the materials to identify whether a larger study involving a control
group should be conducted to indentify the impact the materials may have on increasing DHA
knowledge and consumption.
Ethics approval was granted by the University of Wollongong/South Eastern and Illawarra Area
Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee in Australia. The ethics reference number is
HE10/193 and approval was granted on the 04/08/2010.
2.1. Development and Pilot Testing of Education Materials
A pamphlet and wallet sized shopping card were developed based on the most up to date scientific
literature on DHA during pregnancy [6–8] and professional advice from academic experts and
professional societies in the field of fatty acids (Omega-3 Centre and ISSFAL). The materials were
designed to educate women about the importance of DHA during pregnancy and breastfeeding and to
provide practical advice on how to achieve the European consensus recommendations of at least 200 mg
DHA/day [6,7]. The practical advice component of the materials was developed with the aim to reduce
barriers to change by providing simple solutions for achieving at least 200 mg DHA/day. The pamphlet
provided suggested meals and each meal was rated using varying numbers of stars (i.e., ) according to
how much DHA is present in the meal (i.e., if the meal contained 50 mg DHA, it received one star ()
and if the meal contained 200 mg DHA it received 4 stars ()). The pamphlet gives instructions for
the participants to consume 4 stars a day to meet the recommended 200 mg DHA per day. Food safety
issues, nutritional adequacy and easy to understand terminology were carefully considered in all
aspects of the design process, so as to ensure the materials were clear, precise and in line with current
nutritional guidelines. Permission was obtained from Wollongong University and Omega-3 Centre for
use of their logos.
A small cross-sectional study of adult female participants (N = 15, convenience sample: recruited
by approaching women from the public) was conducted to test design and content of the materials.
Women were given the materials to read and then asked to complete a six-item survey, with
quantitative and qualitative questions about the design (colour, text size, readability), main message
portrayed, amount of information and ease of understanding of the information in the materials.
Responses from each questionnaire were entered into an excel spreadsheet (Excel for Microsoft
Windows 2003, software, Version 11, Microsoft Corporation, United States) and the overall outcomes
were analysed qualitatively by using key words to identify common themes and quantitatively by
measuring closed question responses. Outcomes were used to make seven changes to the materials to
improve the design and understanding.
Nutrients 2013, 5
2.2. Evaluation of Education Materials
Two surveys were developed for use in the evaluation study. Survey one was designed to determine
the participants‘ current DHA consumption behaviours during pregnancy (fish intake and shopping for
DHA enriched products), if they had received any DHA information during their pregnancy and
whether they would like to receive DHA information during pregnancy. The self-administered survey
was separated into two sections, a 10-item DHA section and a six-item demographic section. Survey
two was a 25-item questionnaire designed to assess the participants‘ perceived usefulness of the
materials, changes in opinion since receiving the materials, preferred time and place to receive these
materials and suggestions to make the materials more useful.
Pregnant women were recruited at antenatal sessions during September 2010 in two public
hospitals—one in Sydney and one in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, using information
sheets and flyers. Participants were required to sign a consent form for both surveys and provide
follow up details for future contact. Researchers were available for assistance with completion of the
surveys if required. Exclusion criteria were <18 years of age, not pregnant or spoke no English. Upon
completion of the survey and consent form, the participants received the pamphlet and shopping card.
Two weeks after the first survey was administered the researchers conducted the second survey over
the phone. At least three attempts were made over a period of a week to call each participant.
Data from each survey were entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (SPSS
Version 17.0: 2006, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and coded for analysis. Qualitative responses were
grouped into themes to assess common ideas and views. Quantitative data were tested for normality
using Shapiro-Wilk tests. Means, standard deviations (SD), frequencies and percentages were carried
out on all quantitative questions. A score was assigned to each demographic variable to allow means
and standard deviations to be calculated, for example: Single = 1, Married = 2, De facto = 3 (where
De facto means living with partner but not married to partner). Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests were
used to assess changes in responses between the first and second survey. Chi squared tests were used
to assess statistically significant relationships between demographic variables and responses. A level of
significance of 0.05 was used for all analyses.
A total of 144 pregnant women were invited to participate in the evaluation study by completing the
first survey, of which 118 (82%) agreed. The second survey had a response rate of 63% (N = 74).
Of the 44 women who did not complete the second survey, 28 did not answer their phone, five said
they no longer wanted to be in the study either because they had just had their baby and were too busy,
were in labour or just did not want to do the second survey, four phone numbers were disconnected,
two women did not leave a return phone number, one phone number was a wrong number, two women
asked to be emailed but did not reply to the email and two women had their phones turned off.
Participant characteristics are shown in Table 1.
Nutrients 2013, 5
Table 1. Characteristics of participants in initial recruitment and follow up recruitment.
Initial recruitment *
Follow up recruitment †
Average weeks pregnant
First (1–13 weeks)
Second (14–26 weeks)
Third (27–41 weeks)
Below $10 K
Between $10 and $20 K
Between $20 and $40 K
Between $40 and $75 K
Over $75 K
Highest level of education
De facto: living with partner but not married to partner, TAFE: Training and Further Education Courses, UG:
undergraduate, PG: postgraduate. * Completed survey 1, † Completed both survey 1 and survey 2.
Nutrients 2013, 5
3.2. Survey 1 Outcomes (N = 118)
When asked how often fish and/or seafood was consumed during pregnancy, the most common
consumption reported was once per fortnight (23%), followed closely by once per week (22%) and
twice per week (19%). Education level was significantly related to fish consumption: women who had
a tertiary education were more likely to report higher fish consumption than women of secondary only
education (X2 4.821, p = 0.028). Only 34% of all women reported they had received information from
their health care professional on DHA during pregnancy, whereas 68% said they would like to receive
information on DHA during pregnancy.
3.3. Survey 2 Outcomes (N = 74)
The sample (N = 74) of women who completed both surveys had similar characteristics compared
with the initial recruitment sample (N = 118), as there were no significant differences between the
group characteristics (Table 1). It is conceivable that these 74 participants were more interested in the
potential benefits of DHA than those participants that did not respond a second time. These
participants (N = 74) showed an increase in reported fish consumption from an average of 5 times per
month (±SD 4.5) in the first survey to an average of 6.6 times per month (±SD 4.5) in the second
survey (p < 0.001). When participants who had (previously) received DHA information from their
health care professional (N = 10) were excluded from the analysis, the increase was still statistically
significant (p < 0.001). Similarly there was a significant increase in the number of women who
reported actively shopping for DHA enriched food products after receiving the DHA material (7/74 to
28/74; p < 0.001). After receiving the materials, the number of women who answered yes to wanting
DHA information (like the pamphlet and card) for pregnancy, increased from 55 (74%) to 70 (95%)
(p < 0.001). The awareness of DHA food sources also significantly increased, as there was an increase
in the number of times participants reported seafood, eggs, enriched milk, enriched bread and meats as
DHA food sources as shown in Table 2. When asked what foods participants knew to contain DHA a
small number (4) of women listed supplements and/or fish oil. Out of the 74 women who completed
both surveys 1 woman listed fish oil/supplements as a source of DHA in the first survey and 3 women
listed fish oil/supplements as a source of DHA in the second survey, this was a non-significant increase
(p > 0.05).
Table 2. Change in number of times foods were listed as containing DHA before compared
to after receiving the materials.
Survey 1 (n = 74)
Survey 2 (n = 74)
p Value *
Nutrients 2013, 5
Table 2. Cont.
Average amount of DHA
foods listed per participant
0 4 4 0.045
1.3 2.1 0.8
DHA: Docosahexaenoic Acid (* Wilcoxon Nonparametric Test).
Most women reported using (includes reading) the pamphlet and/or card, 59/74 and 48/74
respectively. The card was carried in their wallet by 43/74 of women. Almost all women (72/74)
wanted to keep the materials for the duration of their pregnancy. Almost half of women (34/74) said
the materials changed their eating habits in some way. Women who answered yes to the materials
changing their eating habits were asked to provide responses of a qualitative nature as to how they
believed their eating habits had changed. The responses were grouped into common themes and four
main themes were identified: women perceived an improvement in their diet, women perceived an
increase in their fish intake, women perceived they had an increase of DHA enriched foods in their
diet and women perceived an increase in DHA foods in general in their diet (not exclusive to
enriched). Some of the comments which resulted in these themes are listed below:
―Increased healthy eating‖,
―Eating more fish‖,
―More conscious effort of making sure I do eat fish and omega-3 enriched bread now‖,
―Try to eat more fish now and have started taking capsules‖,
―Eating more bread that has omega-3 and actively looking for omega-3 products‖.
Of the 34 women who said they changed their eating habits, their answers to the quantitative
questions in the survey showed: 19 reported an increase in fish consumption between the first and
second questionnaire, 16 said ―yes‖ they now actively shopped for DHA enriched foods whereas ―no‖
they did not before receiving the materials and 9 reported both an increase in fish consumption and
actively shopping for DHA enriched foods. There was a statistically significant relationship between
reported/perceived changes in eating habits and shopping for DHA enriched foods (X2 8.409,
p = 0.004).
In total 69/74 of women who completed both surveys said they found the information useful and
5/74 did not. Women found the information in the materials useful or not useful for a variety of
different reasons, which were reported by women in a qualitative nature and grouped into common
themes by the researchers (Figure 1). The two main reasons for usefulness were that the materials
expanded knowledge of DHA food sources and there was information on the benefits of DHA.
A minority of the women found the information not useful due to difficulties understanding the written
English and not having the time to read the information (Figure 1).
Nutrients 2013, 5
Figure 1. Reasons women found the DHA pregnancy education pamphlet and card useful
or not useful. The reasons reported were of qualitative nature and have been grouped into
common themes; these themes are displayed in the figure.
DHA: Docosahexaenoic Acid.
The present study identified that women found provision of DHA pregnancy education materials to
be useful in providing information on the health benefits of DHA and after provision of the materials
women had increased awareness of DHA food sources. Behaviour changes, including increased fish
consumption and actively shopping for DHA food sources, were reported to have occurred. However,
a control group and the inclusion of food intake records such as a food frequency questionnaire or food
diary would be required to identify whether these reported changes in behaviour did actually occur and
to what extent. A desire to receive the materials existed among the target population. Evaluation of the
results suggests the materials designed in the present study are useful nutrition education tools, which
may have potential to assist in increased consumption of DHA during pregnancy.
In terms of the aesthetics and message delivery, the results indicate the design of the materials was
well accepted and the materials delivered a clear and main message: ―DHA and fish are important
during pregnancy‖. Clear delivery of an education message may lead to increased awareness and more
successful behaviour modification [15,16]. These findings support other research, which suggests there
is a strong importance for a clear message in education materials .
The materials developed in the present study were designed to educate women on the importance of
DHA during pregnancy (benefits) and to provide practical advice on how to achieve a desirable
2% 1% 2%
English second language so difficult to understand 2%
Already know the information 1%
Haven't read it 2%
Menu plan/serving sizes and wallet card useful 12%
Information on benefits useful 16%
Expands knowledge of omega-3 DHA food sources 35%
Reminder/reinforcer of knowledge. Good to refer to 5%
Good advice on fish 9%
Credible source of nutrition information/clarified myths 6%
New information/raises awareness 12%
Nutrients 2013, 5
amount of DHA, which are principles consistent with the Health Behaviour Model . A portion of
women in the study highlighted the practical aspects of the materials as a reason for finding the
materials useful. This finding suggests education materials with a practical aspect may have increased
usefulness compared to those without. The Health Behavioural Model suggests ‗cues to action‘ may
influence behaviour change . The wallet sized shopping card provided to the participants may have
acted as a cue for alternative food choices when shopping. Further research should investigate the
significance of the practical suggestions and tools in DHA education materials versus simply providing
information on the topic.
Raised awareness of DHA food sources may be linked with the reported increase in fish
consumption and actively shopping for DHA foods in the present study. Increased awareness and
knowledge has been shown to positively impact on behaviour adoption [15,16,18]. Torvaldsen et al. 
found provision of a Listeria education pamphlet increased the likelihood of women identifying foods
which should be avoided during pregnancy. Results from a recent cross-sectional study of 190 pregnant
women indicate that women are likely to change their eating behaviours when provided with
appropriate information . Future research should determine the degree to which the DHA education
materials may be associated with self-reported behaviour changes.
The results of the present study indicate that prior to receiving information on DHA during
pregnancy, more highly educated women are consuming greater amounts of fish/seafood during
pregnancy compared with less educated women. Sinikovic et al.  found that women with higher
levels of education are more likely to seek information on LC n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy. These
findings suggest that women of higher education level may be more aware of the benefits of DHA and
are therefore consuming more fish/seafood during pregnancy compared to other women . As such,
there may be a specific need for DHA pregnancy education to target women of lower education levels.
Education is an important aspect of pregnancy care, yet prior studies have found that women expect
to receive more nutrition information from their doctor, midwife or health care professional than they
actually receive . The present study identified that only 34% of women had received any
information on DHA from their healthcare professional. Likewise Sinikovic et al.  identified that
only 23% of pregnant women had received any LC n-3 PUFA information from their healthcare
professional. This indicates that no more than one third of women are receiving education on DHA
during pregnancy .
It is concerning that the benefits of DHA are not being communicated to pregnant women,
especially considering prior studies have identified a high interest in nutrition information by women
during pregnancy [12,19]. There are available relevant education materials for pregnant women on
including fish in their diet , however the materials focus on avoiding certain types of fish known to
be high in mercury, rather than highlighting the benefits of consuming fish for its DHA content. Such a
focus on a negative attribute of food (mercury) may lead to women avoiding consumption of fish
during pregnancy. This may occur when different agencies publish different advice (for example the
WHO recommends avoiding tuna  while FSANZ does not ), leaving pregnant women unsure
of the risks associated particular fish species and reducing their fish consumption . A desire for
women to receive DHA information during pregnancy was reported by women in the present study and
the women welcomed positive nutritional messages, which is consistent with other research [12,19].
Nutrients 2013, 5
One of the study limitations is the short time (2 weeks) between the participants receiving the
resources and the follow up survey. It is possible that a longer time period may have lead to different
knowledge and useability outcomes of the resources, perhaps providing stronger support for the
usefulness of such resources. Conversely, given more time, the women may have reported reverting
back to their usual level of fish/DHA consumption. A further unmeasured confounder which may have
influenced the results of the present study is that the first survey was self-administered, whereas the
second survey was administered over the phone. Speaking to someone may have altered responses
because women may have felt embarrassed or wanted to impress the researcher. This study cannot be
considered representative of all pregnant women due to the small sample size and recruitment being
limited to public hospitals and not other locations. Nevertheless, this study provides encouraging
results regarding the usefulness of well designed nutrition education materials in increasing DHA
consumption of pregnant women. These encouraging results indicate a lager study, with a control
group and dietary intake measurements would be warranted to test the cause and effect such education
materials have on consumption of DHA in pregnant women in Australia.
In summary, this study found that a pamphlet and shopping card expanded knowledge of DHA food
sources, provided information on the benefits of DHA, and offered practical dietary suggestions for
women during pregnancy. Pregnant women liked the design of the materials and found the information
useful. Considering the lack of a control group, a recognized limitation of this study, the findings
cannot conclude whether the pamphlet and shopping card would assist in increasing DHA
consumption during pregnancy. However, due to the reported changes in behaviour and the increased
awareness of DHA food sources, provision of such materials to pregnant women across Australia
would be predicted to have positive outcomes for fetal development and maternal DHA stores  and
further studies are warranted to determine whether this is in fact the case. The DHA pregnancy
education pamphlet and card were useful nutrition education tools for the target group at both
secondary and tertiary levels of education. A desire for these materials exists and should be addressed
through availability of the pamphlet and card to all women during pregnancy. Randomised controlled
trials with an appropriate control group and which involve methods, such as food frequency
questionnaires before and after delivery of the materials, are warranted to demonstrate increased
consumption of DHA as a direct result of these materials.
We wish to thank the volunteers for their participation. We would also like to thank Jane Mallett,
Megan Sobierajski, Kristy Pierce, Angela Jones and Tali Leixer for their assistance with approving
recruitment sites and access. All authors developed the research plan. Rebecca Emmett and Shann
Akkersdyk developed the draft pamphlet and shopping card. All authors discussed and reviewed the
draft pamphlet and card to the revision of the final version. Rebecca Emmett wrote the first draft of the
manuscript. All authors reviewed and contributed towards the final manuscript. No funding was sought
for this project.
Nutrients 2013, 5
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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