[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
Context: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Early identification and treatment of risk factors that accelerate this condition are paramount to preventing disease. To this effect, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics, issued updated pediatric guidelines for cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction in 2011. Integration of these guidelines into pediatric practice may lessen cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence Acquisition: In addition to reviewing the NHLBI guidelines, a detailed literature search was performed on Pub Med for clinical studies published between 2010-2013. Key search terms included pediatric dyslipidemia/hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, familial hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and diabetes. Additional citations from these publications were also reviewed. Final publications were selected for their relevance to the topic. Evidence Synthesis: These guidelines contain several important recommendations relative to lipid management, including screening all children with nonfasting non-HDL- C at ages 9-11 years, incorporation of aggressive lifestyle changes to meet cholesterol targets, and initiation of statin therapy for those with LDL-C elevation. In addition, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are now considered high risk conditions and have stringent cholesterol targets. The primary aim is early identification of children with familial hypercholesterolemia; however, these recommendations have met with some controversy. The purpose of this update is to summarize these recent lipid guidelines, present the relevant controversies, highlight common cholesterol disorders, and discuss dyslipidemia specific to the pediatric diabetes population. Conclusion: Identification and treatment of youth with dyslipidemia is of paramount importance to the reduction of future cardiovascular disease. Increasing the comprehension and application of the newest NHLBI guidelines is critical to improving CV outcomes.
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