Insulin Resistance and the Relationship Between Urinary Na+/K+ and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in a Community of African Ancestry
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Although groups of African descent are particularly sensitive to blood pressure (BP) effects of salt intake, the role of obesity and insulin resistance in mediating this effect is uncertain. We determined whether obesity or insulin resistance is independently associated with urinary Na(+)/K(+)-BP relationships in a community sample of African ancestry. METHODS We measured 24-hour urinary Na(+)/K(+), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and nurse-derived conventional and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 331 participants from a South African community sample of black African descent not receiving treatment for hypertension. RESULTS With adjustments for diabetes mellitus and the individual terms, an interaction between waist circumference and urinary Na(+)/K(+) was associated with day diastolic BP (P < 0.05) and an interaction between log HOMA-IR and urinary Na(+)/K(+) was associated with 24-hour and day systolic (P < 0.05) and 24-hour, day, and night diastolic (P < 0.002; P < 0.001) BP. The multivariable-adjusted relationship between urinary Na(+)/K(+) and night diastolic BP increased across tertiles of HOMA-IR (tertile 1: β-coefficient = -0.79±0.47; tertile 2: β-coefficient = 0.65±0.35; tertile 3: β-coefficient = 1.03±0.46; P < 0.05 tertiles 3 and 2 vs. 1). The partial correlation coefficients for relationships between urinary Na(+)/K(+) and 24-hour (partial r = 0.19; P < 0.02), day (partial r = 0.17; P < 0.05), and night (partial r = 0.18; P < 0.02) diastolic BP in participants with log HOMA-IR greater than or equal to the median were greater than those for relationships between urinary Na(+)/K(+) and 24-hour (partial r = -0.08; P = 0.29), day (partial r = -0.10; P < 0.22), and night (partial r = -0.06; P = 0.40) diastolic BP in participants with log HOMA-IR less than the median (comparisons of r values: P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Insulin resistance may modify the relationship between salt intake, indexed by urinary Na(+)/K(+), and ambulatory BP in groups of African descent.
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ABSTRACT: The potential cost-effectiveness and feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing hypertension risk are of considerable interest and significance in public health. In particular, the effectiveness of restricted sodium or increased potassium intake on mitigating hypertension risk has been demonstrated in clinical and observational research. The role that modified sodium or potassium intake plays in influencing the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains of interest in current research. Up to the present date, no known systematic review has examined whether the sodium-to-potassium ratio or either sodium or potassium alone is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related factors, including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction, in humans. This article presents a systematic review and synthesis of the randomized controlled trials and observational research related to this issue. The main findings show that, among the randomized controlled trials reviewed, the sodium-to-potassium ratio appears to be more strongly associated with blood pressure outcomes than either sodium or potassium alone in hypertensive adult populations. Recent data from the observational studies reviewed provide additional support for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as a superior metric to either sodium or potassium alone in the evaluation of blood pressure outcomes and incident hypertension. It remains unclear whether this is true in normotensive populations and in children and for related outcomes including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction. Future study in these populations is warranted.Advances in Nutrition 11/2014; 5(6):712-741. DOI:10.3945/an.114.006783 · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Excessive renal sympathetic nerve activation may be one of the mechanisms underlying obesity-related hypertension. Impaired baroreflex sensitivity, adipokine disorders-such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin-activation of the renin-angiotensin system, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and renal sodium retention present in obesity increase renal sympathetic nerve activity, thus contributing to the development of hypertension. Renal sympathetic denervation reduces both renal sympathetic activity and blood pressure in patients with obesity-related hypertension.Herz 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00059-014-4072-7 · 0.78 Impact Factor