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    • "Moreover, there have been revisions of the specific criteria for a diagnosis of ASD in order to make it more precise and reliable. Such changes have been made due to the growing number of evidence showing that differentiation between PDD–NOS, AS, and other forms of ASD are not properly made (Huerta et al., 2013; Lord et al., 2012). For example, impaired social interaction and reduced communication have been integrated into one category, and restricted and repetitive behaviors were retained as the second category of symptoms needed for diagnosis of ASD (Barton et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders that is among the most severe in terms of prevalence, morbidity and impact to the society. It is characterized by complex behavioral phenotype and deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact cause of ASD is still not known, the main findings emphasize the role of genetic and environmental factors in the development of autistic behavior. Environmental factors are also likely to interact with the genetic profile and cause aberrant changes in brain growth, neuronal development, and functional connectivity. The past few years have seen an increase in the prevalence of ASD, as a result of enhanced clinical tests and diagnostic tools. Despite growing evidence for the involvement of endogenous biomarkers in the pathophysiology of ASD, early detection of this disorder remains a big challenge. This paper describes the main behavioral and cognitive features of ASD, as well as the symptoms that differentiate autism from other developmental disorders. An attempt will be made to integrate all the available evidence which point to reduced brain connectivity, mirror neurons deficits, and inhibition-excitation imbalance in individuals with ASD. Finally, this review discusses the main factors involved in the pathophysiology of ASD, and illustrates some of the most important markers used for the diagnosis of this debilitating disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 04/2015; 43. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2015.04.003 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the lead up to and following the recent publication of the DSM-5, the diagnostic construct of autism has received intense scrutiny. This article briefly reviews the history of the diagnosis of autism, the changes that have occurred in the diagnosis over time, and the rationale for change. The most significant changes being introduced with the DSM-5 are highlighted, as well as some of the concerns that will be a focus of attention with respect to the potential impacts going forward. The categorical divisions that characterized the pervasive developmental disorders are now collapsed into a single entity, autism spectrum disorder. The final DSM-5 criteria have yet to be formally compared prospectively against prior criteria, but early indications suggest that the boundaries around the pervasive developmental disorders have not been substantially altered.
    Current opinion in psychiatry 01/2014; 27(2). DOI:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000040 · 3.94 Impact Factor