Article

Neurocognitive effects of methylphenidate on ADHD children with different DAT genotypes: A longitudinal open label trial.

Division of Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Via Alberico 2 n.35, 00193 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: .
European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society (Impact Factor: 1.93). 03/2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2013.02.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT) may influence the variability of the therapeutic response to methylphenidate (MPH) in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). For this reason we evaluated the neuropsychological functioning after a prolonged period of MPH treatment and after a specific time from MPH suspension. Relationship between DAT VNTR genotypes and neurocognitive response to MPH was analyzed in a sample of 108 drug-naive ADHD patients. The performance of children with ADHD on measures of working memory, inhibition and planning was assessed at 4, 8 and 24 weeks and at 8 weeks after MPH withdrawal. Patients with 9/9 genotype evidenced an improvement in response inhibition and working memory only at 4 weeks of treatment, in planning at 24 weeks of therapy and after 8 weeks of MPH suspension. Patients with 9/10 showed an improvement in response inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 weeks of treatment, in planning at 24 weeks and after 8 weeks of MPH suspension. Patients with 10/10 evidenced an improvement in response inhibition and working memory at 4, 8 and 24 weeks of treatment and in planning at 4, 8 and 24 weeks of treatment and after 8 weeks of suspension. These results indicate that the 9/9 ADHD genotype has a different response at 24 weeks treatment with MPH. 10/10 DAT allele seems to be associated with an increased expression level of the dopamine transporter and seems to mediate the MPH treatment response in ADHD patients.

0 Followers
 · 
73 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We review the pharmaceutical science of ethylphenidate (EPH) in the contexts of drug discovery, drug interactions, biomarker for dl-methylphenidate (MPH)–ethanol exposure, potentiation of dl-MPH abuse liability, contemporary “designer drug,” pertinence to the newer transdermal and chiral switch MPH formulations, as well as problematic internal standard. d-EPH selectively targets the dopamine transporter, whereas d-MPH exhibits equipotent actions at dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. This selectivity carries implications for the advancement of tailored attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy in the era of genome-based diagnostics. Abuse of dl-MPH often involves ethanol coabuse. Carboxylesterase 1 enantioselectively transesterifies l-MPH with ethanol to yield l-EPH accompanied by significantly increased early exposure to d-MPH and rapid potentiation of euphoria. The pharmacokinetic component of this drug interaction can largely be avoided using dexmethylphenidate (dexMPH). This notwithstanding, maximal potentiated euphoria occurs following dexMPH–ethanol. C57BL/6 mice model dl-MPH–ethanol interactions: an otherwise depressive dose of ethanol synergistically increases dl-MPH stimulation; a substimulatory dose of dl-MPH potentiates a low, stimulatory dose of ethanol; ethanol elevates blood, brain, and urinary d-MPH concentrations while forming l-EPH. Integration of EPH preclinical neuropharmacology with clinical studies of MPH–ethanol interactions provides a translational approach toward advancement of ADHD personalized medicine and management of comorbid alcohol use disorder. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2014; 103(12). DOI:10.1002/jps.24202 · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a functional element of the dopaminergic synapse in the brain. Its primary role is the regulation of dopamine (DA) availability by forward and reverse transport of DA from and to the synaptic cleft by which extracellular DA concentrations are being regulated. The DAT gene and especially the DAT 10/10 genotype have been intensively discussed as a candidate for several neuropsychiatric disorders including attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We found recently that the DAT 10/10 genotype is associated with increased levels of CSF DA and is present more frequently in HIV-infected individuals than in uninfected subjects, suggesting that personality traits related to this polymorphism may increase the risk of acquisition of HIV. In this article, we review studies on the DAT 10/10 genotype and the association with ADHD and its endophenotypes, express concerns on the reported DA neurochemistry in ADHD and discuss consequences of the DAT 10/10 genotype on the epidemiology of HIV infection.
    ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12402-014-0134-1
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, affecting individuals across the life cycle. Although its etiology is not yet completely understood, genetics plays a substantial role. Pharmacological treatment is considered effective and safe for children and adults, but there is considerable inter-individual variability among patients regarding response to medication, required doses, and adverse events. We present here a systematic review of the literature on ADHD pharmacogenetics to provide a critical discussion of the existent findings, new approaches, limitations, and recommendations for future research. Our main findings are: first, the number of studies continues to grow, making ADHD one of the mental health areas with more pharmacogenetic studies. Second, there has been a focus shift on ADHD pharmacogenetic studies in the last years. There is an increasing number of studies assessing gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, using genome-wide association approaches, neuroimaging, and assessing pharmacokinetic properties. Third and most importantly, the heterogeneity in methodological strategies employed by different studies remains impressive. The question whether pharmacogenetics studies of ADHD will improve clinical management by shifting from trial-and-error approach to a pharmacological regimen that takes into account the individual variability remains unanswered. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 06/2014; 165(4). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32240 · 3.27 Impact Factor