Prevalence, serotype diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in imported shipments of spice offered for entry to the United States, FY2007-FY2009.
ABSTRACT In response to increased concerns about spice safety, the U.S. FDA initiated research to characterize the prevalence of Salmonella in imported spices. Shipments of imported spices offered for entry to the United Sates were sampled during the fiscal years 2007-2009. The mean shipment prevalence for Salmonella was 0.066 (95% CI 0.057-0.076). A wide diversity of Salmonella serotypes was isolated from spices; no single serotype constituted more than 7% of the isolates. A small percentage of spice shipments were contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains (8.3%). Trends in shipment prevalence for Salmonella associated with spice properties, extent of processing, and export country, were examined. A larger proportion of shipments of spices derived from fruit/seeds or leaves of plants were contaminated than those derived from the bark/flower of spice plants. Salmonella prevalence was larger for shipments of ground/cracked capsicum and coriander than for shipments of their whole spice counterparts. No difference in prevalence was observed between shipments of spice blends and non-blended spices. Some shipments reported to have been subjected to a pathogen reduction treatment prior to being offered for U.S. entry were found contaminated. Statistical differences in Salmonella shipment prevalence were also identified on the basis of export country.
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ABSTRACT: Between April and September 1993, a nationwide outbreak of salmonellosis occurred in Germany which was traced to contaminated paprika and paprika-powdered potato chips. Of the estimated 1000 cases, children below 14 years were principally affected. Levels of 0.04-0.45 organisms per gram were found in the snacks. The infective dose was estimated at 4-45 organisms with an attack rate of 1 in 10,000 exposed persons. The unique feature of the outbreak was the variety of serovars involved. S. saintpaul, S. rubislaw and S. javiana were isolated during the same time period from paprika powder, spice mixtures, snacks and patients. Their clonal identity was confirmed by molecular typing methods. Furthermore, monophasic and non-motile strains of rare salmonella O-groups were isolated from both paprika products and patients. This is the largest documented outbreak due to contaminated spices which proved that even extremely low numbers of salmonellae adapted to the dry state were able to cause illness.Epidemiology and Infection 01/1996; 115(3):501-11. · 2.87 Impact Factor
Article: Antimicrobial activity of spices.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spices have been shown to possess medicinal value, in particular, antimicrobial activity. This study compares the sensitivity of some human pathogenic bacteria and yeasts to various spice extracts and commonly employed chemotherapeutic substances. Of the different spices tested only garlic and clove were found to possess antimicrobial activity. The bactericidal effect of garlic extract was apparent within 1 h of incubation and 93% killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Salmonella typhi was achieved within 3 h. Yeasts were totally killed in 1 h by garlic extract but in 5 h with clove. Some bacteria showing resistance to certain antibiotics were sensitive to extracts of both garlic and clove. Greater anti-candidal activity was shown by garlic than by nystatin. Spices might have a great potential to be used as antimicrobial agents.International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 09/1999; 12(3):257-62. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are the primary cause of foodborne disease in developed countries, resulting in considerable morbidity and occasionally death, especially in immunocompromised patients. Strains of Salmonella that are resistant to antimicrobial agents have become a world-wide health problem. Fluoroquinolones are drugs of choice for treatment of human invasive salmonellosis, and have been useful for the treatment of infections caused by multi-resistant strains. However, strains resistant to ciprofloxacin have been noted. A random sample of 378 Salmonella strains of human origin was collected during 1998. Their susceptibility to 11 antimicrobial agents was determined by the agar dilution method according to NCCLS standards. In total, 38 serotypes were represented of which S. Enteritidis (20.4%), S. Typhimurium (20.4%), S. Hadar (9.0%), S. Brandenburg (7.9%), S. Infantis (7.7%), and S. Virchow (5.3%) were the most common. All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. For nalidixic acid the rate of resistance was 19.0%. Of the 72 strains resistant to nalidixic acid, 31 were S. Hadar, and thus 91.2% (31/34) of the S. Hadar isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid. Most of the S. Hadar strains were also resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline and sulphamethoxazole, and an elevated MIC50 (0.25 microgram/ml) and MIC90 (1 microgram/ml) was observed for ciprofloxacin. The high rate of resistance to nalidixic acid can be a first step towards the development of resistance to ciprofloxacin.Acta clinica Belgica 56(3):180-6. · 0.59 Impact Factor