Optimal Risk-Adapted Surveillance Strategies for NMIBC, Including Upper Tract Imaging
Section of Urology, The University of Chicago Medical Center, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC 6038, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.Urologic Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.2). 05/2013; 40(2):305-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.ucl.2013.01.013
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents approximately 70% of all incident cases of bladder cancer. The financial burden of NMIBC continues to increase, underscoring the importance of efficient, evidence-based management of this disease. Consensus guidelines differ on risk definition and in management recommendations. This article reviews the incidence and financial impact of NMIBC and details the recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance made by the American Urological Association, International Consultation on Bladder Cancer-European Association of Urology, and National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Established and developing adjunctive laboratory and imaging tests directed at diagnosis and management of NMIBC are also discussed.
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