The immune system and overtraining in athletes: Clinical implications
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise & Sports Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.Acta clinica Croatica (Impact Factor: 0.34). 12/2012; 51(4):633-41.
The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview of how overtraining and the overtraining syndrome (OTS) affect the immune system of athletes. A secondary objective is to provide sports medicine clinicians with guidance as to how best to prevent and/or treat some of the health consequences of overtraining and the OTS as related to the development of a compromised immune system associated with exercise training. The OTS is a physically debilitating condition that results in athletes being totally compromised in their capacity to perform and compete. Many physiological systems are affected by the process of overtraining and the OTS; but one system in particular, the immune, is highly susceptible to degradation resulting in a reduction in overall health and performance. Monitoring of an athlete's exercise training load and other life stresses is critical to the determination of when their training regimen may be excessive, thereby increasing the risk of OTS developing. Taking steps to mitigate prolonged exposure to extreme stress (training + life or otherwise) in athletes as well as promoting a healthy immune system can significantly aid in the advancement of an athlete's training regimen progression and ultimate physical performance and overall health. In this light, this review provides approaches to aid sports medicine clinicians in promoting a healthy immune system in athletes.
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ABSTRACT: The endocrine system has profound regulatory effects within the human body and thus the ability to control and maintain appropriate function within many physiological systems (i.e., homeostasis). The hormones associated with the endocrine system utilize autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions on the cells of their target tissues within these physiologic systems to adjust homeostasis. The introduction of exercise as a stressor to disrupt homeostasis can greatly amplify and impact the actions of these hormones. To that end, the endocrine response to an acute exercise session occurs in a progression of phases with the magnitude of the response being relative to the exercise work intensity or volume. Various physiologic mechanisms are considered responsible for these responses, although not all are completely understood or elucidated. Chronic exercise training does not eliminate the acute exercise response but may attenuate the overall effect of the responsiveness as the body adapts in a positive fashion to the training stimulus. Regrettably, an excessive intensity and/or volume of training may lead to maladaptation and is associated with inappropriate endocrine hormonal responses. The mechanisms leading to a deleterious maladaptive state are not well understood and require additional research for elucidation.Progress in molecular biology and translational science 01/2015; 135:293-311. DOI:10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.07.001 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Overtraining is a maladaptive state of athlete's body related to the physical, behavioral and emotional condition, occurring when exercise training exceeds the recoverability. The cytokine hypothesis of overtraining promoted in recent years is seen as the prevailing theory explaining the understanding of the overtraining phenomenon. The high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β) involved in the inflammatory response may strongly influence not only the central nervous system but also the endocrine and immune systems. Moreover, there is a range of factors in athlete's life that appear to increase the risk of depression development, such as psychological and emotional stress associated with sports competition. The aim of this review was to reveal the role of high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in OTS with the possible occurrence of depression symptoms in athletes. Latest findings have shown an important role of the same pro-inflammatory cytokines in the development of depression. The study discusses a potential mechanism responsible for the development of depression in athletes, which may be helpful in the quick diagnosis of depression basis in athletes. Due to the low number of studies concerning depression and inflammation in athletes further research should be conducted.
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